Kottayam, India

Mahatma Gandhi University

Kottayam, India

Mahatma Gandhi University, also known as M G University, was established on 2 October 1983 in Kottayam. Mahatma Gandhi University , has been accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, India. The university has 10 affiliated colleges spread over five districts in central Kerala.The University Grants Commission of India does not believe that the names of Indian universities should be unique, so another UGC-recognized government-run Mahatma Gandhi University was established in 2007 in Andhra Pradesh and was not challenged by the older Mahatma Gandhi University. Similarly another university named Mahatma Gandhi University was also established through Meghalaya State legislative Act, 2010 in Meghalaya and through Uttarakhand State legislative act, 2007 in Uttarakhand. Wikipedia.

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Bhavanani A.B.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Introduction: Yoga has become popular worldwide with increasing research done on its therapeutic potential. However, it remains to be determined whether such findings actually percolate down into teaching and practice of Yoga teachers/therapists. Materials and Methods: The aim of this survey was to document awareness of Yoga research findings in the Yoga community and find out how these were utilized. It was undertaken with a select group of 34 international Yoga teachers and therapists utilizing email and social media between August and December 2015. Majority of responders had well-established reputation in Yoga and were from diverse lineages with 30 of them having more than 5 years of experience in the field. A set of eight questions were sent to them related to essentiality of Yoga research, how they updated themselves on research findings and whether such studies influenced their teaching and practice. Responses were compiled and appropriate statistics determined for quantitative aspects while feedback, comments and suggestions were noted in detail. Results and Discussion: About 89% agreed that it was essential to be up-to-date on Yoga research but only 70% updated themselves regularly with average papers read fully per year being <10. Most accessed information through general news reports, emails from contacts, and articles on internet sites whereas only 7% were through PubMed. About 60% felt these studies helped them in general teaching whereas 20% said that such studies had not really influenced it in any way. Conclusion: This survey provides a basic picture of a general lack of awareness of Yoga research amongst practicing Yoga teachers and therapists. Though a majority agree research is important, few seriously update themselves on this through scientific channels. With regard to future studies, most wanted “proof” that could be used to convince potential clients and felt that more qualitative methods should be applied. © SAGEYA.

Arun Raj R.,Mahatma Gandhi University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of this research work was to develop and evaluate matrix type transdermal therapeutic system containing drug nifedipine with different ratios of four polymers by the moulding technique. Methods: The physicochemical parameters such as physical appearance, folding endurance, thickness, weight uniformity, percentage moisture uptake, percentage moisture content, percentage drug content, percentage flatness and percentage of swelling index were evaluated. In vitro permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells and data were fitted to various kinetic models. Results: Folding endurance test results indicated that the patches would maintain their integrity with general skin folding. For all the formulation the thickness varied between 0.12 to 0.15mm. The moisture uptake studies revealed that all the patches were having the low moisture uptake and moisture content. Drug content among the batches were ranged from 98.6% to 99.8%. The flatness study showed no amount of constriction was observed. Percentage of swelling index of all the polymers were between 0.5 - 13.9%. Among the formulations prepared F4, showed a better combination for the controlled release. Nifedipine patches follow zero order kinetics of permeation. Conclusion: Results from various evaluations suggested that matrix type nifedipine patches could be used as transdermal drug delivery devices.

Nthenge-Ngumbau D.N.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Mohanakumar K.P.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2017

Parkinson’s disease (PD) has no known cure; available therapies are only capable of offering temporary, symptomatic relief to the patients. Varied therapeutic strategies that are clinically used for PD are pharmacological therapies including dopamine replacement therapies (with or without adjuvant), postsynaptic dopamine receptor stimulation, dopamine catabolism inhibitors and also anticholinergics. Surgical therapies like deep brain stimulation and ablative surgical techniques are also employed. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). A number of PDE families are highly expressed in the striatum including PDE1–4, PDE7, PDE9 and PDE10. There are growing evidences to suggest that these enzymes play a critical role in modulating cAMP-mediated dopamine signalling at the postsynaptic region. Therefore, it is clear that PDEs, given the broad range of subtypes and their varied tissue- and region-specific distributions, will be able to provide a range of possibilities as drug targets. There is no phosphodiesterase inhibitor currently approved for use against PD. The development of small molecule inhibitors against cyclic nucleotide PDE is a particularly hot area of investigation, and a lot of research and development is geared in this direction with major players in the pharmaceutical industry investing heavily in developing such potential drug entities. This review, while critically assessing the existing body of literature on brain PDEs with particular interest in the striatum in the context of motor function regulation, indicates it is certainly likely that PDE inhibitors could be developed as therapeutic agents against PD. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Recent measurements have demonstrated unprecedented increase in atmospheric deposition of nutrients in many parts of India. To determine whether atmospheric nutrient inputs would increase phytoplankton growth and catchment dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flushing to constrain benthic algae, we analyzed NO3 - and PO4 -3 in atmospheric deposits; nutrients and DOC in runoff and lake water and standing crop biomass of phytoplankton and periphyton at Jaisamand Lake of Rajasthan, India. Atmospheric deposition of NO3 - (7. 18-29. 95 kg ha-1year-1) and PO4 -3 (0. 56-2. 15 kg ha-1year-1) showed a consistently rising trend across the year. Microbial biomass and activity in catchment increased in response to atmospheric deposition. Lake DOC and nutrients showed strong coherence with their terrestrial and atmospheric fluxes. Phytoplankton development showed significant linearity with atmospheric input of nutrients. Air-driven input appeared to have compensated the nutrient constraints to phytoplankton during drought. The N:P stoichiometry of deposition and that of lake water indicated that, although there was a seasonal switchover to N- or P-limitation, phytoplankton were mainly co-limited by N and P due probably to the synergistic effects of combined N + P enrichment in the pelagic zone of the lake. Periphyton standing crop showed inverse relationship with phytoplankton and lake DOC. The study indicated that enhanced phytoplankton development and terrestrial DOC flushing in response to atmospheric nutrient input attenuated light penetration to constrain algal periphyton. We suggests that data on these issues may be considered in developing aquatic ecosystem models to establish future links between changing air-water-land interactions and associated shifts in lake ecosystem functioning for more accurately predicting climate change drivers and designing integrated lake basin management strategies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sindhu K.S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Anilkumar G.,Mahatma Gandhi University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Symmetrical 1,3-diynes and their derivatives are useful motifs for the construction of complex molecules, and their excellent photochemical and material properties received considerable attention in the last decades. They are used for the synthesis of a large variety of polymers, biologically active molecules, supramolecular materials and light harvesting systems. Glaser coupling is the most widely used procedure for the synthesis of 1,3-diynes through the oxidative homocoupling of terminal alkynes. Classical homocoupling is catalysed by copper salts in the presence of a base and an oxidant. Numerous modifications were developed recently to improve the efficacy of Glaser coupling reactions. Novel synthetic routes and approaches employing greener protocols are well appreciable. In addition to terminal alkynes, other susceptible substrates are also tested for the synthesis of 1,3-diynes. These recent advances and perspectives of Glaser coupling reactions are documented in this review. This review highlights the diverse and innovative strategies developed for the synthesis and applications of 1,3-diynes expending green chemistry. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Bindu P.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

The viscoelastic behavior and reinforcement mechanism of nano ZnO reinforced natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were investigated in this study. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed to investigate the nature of the constrained polymer region in NR-nano ZnO nanocomposites, and the constrained polymer region is responsible for the reinforcement mechanism. The viscoelastic and tensile properties of NR nanocomposites were investigated with respect to the effect of nanofiller loading. All the nanocomposites showed a significant increase in storage modulus in the glassy and rubbery regions, the shift of the tan δ peak to the higher temperature region, and the lowering of the tan δ peak intensity compared to neat NR. The enhancement in the modulus is related to the weight % of the added nano ZnO as well as the volume of the constrained rubber chains in the proximity of ZnO nanoparticles. The study of the constrained volume of the polymer indicates that the structure of the nanocomposite possesses a moderately strong interfacial interaction between rubber chains and ZnO nanoparticles. The type of rubber-nanofiller interaction strongly influences the amount and modulus of the constrained region and contributes to the enhancement in the storage modulus of the resulting nanocomposites. The volume fraction of the constrained region of the NR nanocomposites was found to have good linear correlation with the weight % of nano ZnO. It was also understood that there should exist an optimum cross-linking density for a certain nanofiller reinforced rubber system, as well as partial physical adsorption of macromolecular rubber chains on the nanofiller surface. An optimum nanofiller loading is necessary for moderately strong rubber-nanofiller interaction and hence for the enhancement in the mechanical properties of the NR nanocomposites. A core-shell morphology model and constrained polymer model have been proposed to explain the constrained polymer chains in the NR-nano ZnO nanocomposite system on the basis of these results. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Mathews V.V.,Mahatma Gandhi University
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences | Year: 2013

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an environmental toxicant as well as an effective anti cancer agent against many types of cancers. It is a promising drug for patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), but its clinical efficacy is burdened by the serious cardiac toxicities. The present study was designed to investigate the toxic mechanism of arsenic in cardiac tissue at its clinically relevant concentrations. Experimental rats were administered with As2O3 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg body weight, orally for a period of 45 days. Cardiac toxicities were recorded by lipid peroxidation, activities of glutathione dependent antioxidant and antiperoxidative enzymes, cardiac arsenic accumulation and histopathological changes. In vivo studies revealed a significant rise in lipid peroxidation, decline in reduced glutathione, glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes in the cardiac tissue of arsenic treated rats. The extent of free radical production was found increased with periodic rise in the arsenic concentration. The experimental group which received 8 mg/kg body weight of arsenic exhibited the highest deposition of arsenic in cardiac tissue. Light microscopic examination of cardiac tissues in arsenic treated rats has showed increased structural abnormalities like myocardial fibre swelling, capillary congestion and micro-haemorrhages. The study concludes that the mechanism of arsenic induced cardiac toxicity is associated with the accumulation of arsenic in tissue and the extent of free radical production.

Kanthraj G.R.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2015

Recent teledermatology practice has been focused on different models made possible by robust advances in information technology leading to consistent interaction between the patient and health care professionals. Patient-assisted teledermatology practice also called patient-enabled teledermatology or home based teledermatology is one such novel model. There is a lack of scientific literature and substantive reviews on patient-assisted teledermatology practice. The present article reviews several studies and surveys on patient-assisted teledermatology practice and outlines its advantages and barriers to clinical utility and analyses the potentiality of this concept. Incorporating patient-assisted teledermatology practice as a novel model in the revised classification of teledermatology practice is proposed. In patient-assisted teledermatology, the patient can upload his/her clinical images as a first contact with the dermatologist or an initial face-to-face examination can be followed by teledermatology consultations. The latter method is well suited to chronic diseases such as psoriasis, vitiligo, and leg ulcers, which may need frequent follow-up entailing significant costs and time, particularly in the elderly. Teledermatology may also be used by the treating dermatologist to seek expert opinion for difficult cases. Studies have demonstrated the importance and usability of the concept of patient-assisted teledermatology practice. Various teledermatology care models are available and the appropriate model should be chosen depending on whether the clinical situation is that of easily diagnosed cases ("spotters"), chronic cases or doubtful cases and difficult-to-manage cases.

Jose J.P.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Thomas S.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Herein, investigation on XLPE-Al2O3-clay ternary hybrid systems of Al2O3 and clay in 1:1 and 2:1 ratios, binary systems of XLPE-clay and XLPE-Al2O3 nanocomposites, with special reference to the hybrid filler effect and the superior microstructural development in ternary systems is conducted. The ternary hybrid composite of Al2O3 and clay in a 1:1 ratio exhibits the highest tensile strength (100% increase) and Young's modulus (208% increase), followed by the Al2O3:clay = 2:1 system. The interaction between alumina and clay altered the composite morphology, filler dispersion and gave rise to a unique filler architecture leading to a substantial boost up in mechanics compared to predictions based on the idealized filler morphology. Experimentally observed much higher mechanics compared to theoretical predictions confirmed that the dramatic improvement in mechanics is the outcome of the positive hybrid effect and a second factor of synergism, i.e. filler-filler networks. Morphological control of the hybrid filler network is realized by adjusting the ratio between different fillers. For the Al 2O3:clay = 2:1 system, the microstructural limitation of dispersion due to the steric effect of alumina clusters shifts the properties to the negative hybrid effect region. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Mathew T.V.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Kuriakose S.,Mahatma Gandhi University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2013

Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesised using sol-gel method and these nanoparticles were stabilised by encapsulated into the scaffolds of bovine serum albumin. Silver nanoparticles and encapsulated products were characterised by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TG, SEM and TEM analyses. Silver nanoparticle encapsulated bovine serum albumin showed highly potent antibacterial activity towards the bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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