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Vidhale S.S.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Kazi S.,JNFACPM Medical College | Kotwaliwale S.V.,Genetic Diagnostic Center
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences

Social problems and economical burden of the children born with chromosomal abnormalities is tremendous. Primary prevention by prenatal diagnosis appears to be a better mean to deal with the problem rather than expensive treatment. But diagnostic procedures are also costly due to equipments and reagents required. So this study aims to analyze midtrimester amniotic fluid samples and to find out difference between the results with and without using CO2 to make it cost effective. 50 Amniotic fluid samples were obtained from high risk pregnancy group. Cultures were obtained by standard protocol. Adequate culture growth was observed in all 50 samples. No significant difference was observed in the number of days required for the culture to grow with or without using CO2. To conclude amniotic fluid cultures can be grown adequately even without using CO2, this makes the technique cost effective and simpler for successive management of the cases. Source

Ambade V.N.,Government Medical College | Keoliya A.N.,Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College | Deokar R.B.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Dixit P.G.,Government Medical College
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

One of the classic mistakes in forensic pathology is to regard the autopsy of decomposed body as unrewarding. The present study was undertaken with a view to debunk this myth and to determine the characteristic pattern in decomposed bodies brought for medicolegal autopsy. From a total of 4997 medicolegal deaths reported at an Apex Medical Centre, Yeotmal, a rural district of Maharashtra over seven year study period, only 180 cases were decomposed, representing 3.6% of the total medicolegal autopsies with the rate of 1.5 decomposed body/100,000 population per year. Male (79.4%) predominance was seen in decomposed bodies with male female ratio of 3.9:1. Most of the victims were between the ages of 31 and 60 years with peak at 31-40 years (26.7%) followed by 41-50 years (19.4%). Older age above 60 years was found in 8.6% cases. Married (64.4%) outnumbered unmarried ones in decomposition. Most of the decomposed bodies were complete (83.9%) and identified (75%). But when the body was incomplete/mutilated or skeletonised then 57.7% of the deceased remains unidentified. The cause and manner of death was ascertained in 85.6% and 81.1% cases respectively. Drowning (35.6%) was the commonest cause of death in decomposed bodies with suicide (52.8%) as the commonest manner of death. Decomposed bodies were commonly recovered from open places (43.9%), followed by water sources (43.3%) and enclosed place (12.2%). Most of the decomposed bodies were retrieved from well (49 cases) followed by barren land (27 cases) and forest (17 cases). 83.8% of the decomposed bodies were recovered before 72 h and only in 16.2% cases the time since death was more than 72 h, mostly recovered from barren land, forest and river. Most of the decomposed bodies were found in summer season (42.8%) with peak in the month of May. Despite technical difficulties in handling the body and artefactual alteration of the tissue, the decomposed body may still reveal cause and manner of death in significant number of cases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

Hasan T.F.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Hunaid H.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College
International Journal of Medical Sciences

The roles of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), opioid peptides, leptin and ghrelin in anorexia nervosa (AN) were discussed in this paper. CRF is the key mediator of the hypo-thalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and also acts at various other parts of the brain, such as the limbic system and the peripheral nervous system. CRF action is mediated through the CRF1 and CRF2 receptors, with both HPA axis-dependent and HPA axis-independent ac-tions, where the latter shows nil involvement of the autonomic nervous system. CRF1 re-ceptors mediate both the HPA axis-dependent and independent pathways through CRF, while the CRF2 receptors exclusively mediate the HPA axis-independent pathways through uro-cortin. Opioid peptides are involved in the adaptation and regulation of energy intake and utilization through reward-related behavior. Opioids play a role in the addictive component of AN, as described by the "auto-addiction opioids theory". Their interactions have demon-strated the psychological aspect of AN and have shown to prevent the functioning of the physiological homeostasis. Important opioids involved are β-lipotropin, β-endorphin and dynorphin, which interact with both μ and κ opioids receptors to regulate reward-mediated behavior and describe the higher incidence of AN seen in females. Moreover, ghrelin is known as the "hunger" hormone and helps stimulate growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insu-lin-like-growth-factor-1(IGF-1), maintaining anabolism and preserving a lean body mass. In AN, high levels of GH due to GH resistance along with low levels of IGF-1 are observed. Leptin plays a role in suppressing appetite through the inhibition of neuropeptide Y gene. Moreover, the CRF, opioid, leptin and ghrelin mechanisms operate collectively at the HPA axis and express the physiological and psychological components of AN. Fear conditioning is an intricate learning process occurring at the level of the hippocampus, amygdala, lateral septum and the dorsal raphe by involving three distinct pathways, the HPA axis-independent pathway, hypercortisolemia and ghrelin. Opioids mediate CRF through noradrenergic stim-ulation in association with the locus coeruleus. Furthermore, CRF's inhibitory effect on gonadotropin releasing hormone can be further explained by the direct relationship seen between CRF and opioids. Low levels of gonadotropin have been demonstrated in AN where only estrogen has shown to mediate energy intake. In addition, estrogen is involved in reg-ulating μ receptor concentrations, but in turn both CRF and opioids regulate estrogen. Moreover, opioids and leptin are both an effect of AN, while many studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between CRF and anorexic behavior. Moreover, leptin, estrogen and ghrelin play a role as predictors of survival in starvation. Since both leptin and estrogen are associated with higher levels of bone marrow fat they represent a longer survival than those who favor the ghrelin pathway. Future studies should consider cohort studies involving prepubertal males and females with high CRF. This would help prevent the extrapolation of results from studies on mice and draw more meaningful conclusions in humans. Studies should also consider these mechanisms in post-AN patients, as well as look into what predisposes certain individuals to develop AN. Finally, due to its complex pathogenesis the treatment of AN should focus on both the pharmacological and behavioral perspectives. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source

Churi C.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Anjenaya S.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College
Australasian Medical Journal

Background: Many Indian truck drivers tend to have multiple sexual partners, owing to the migratory nature of their occupation. Consequently there is a greater risk for them to pass on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and HIV to their wives and other partners. This study endeavours to document the sexual behaviour and trends of condom usage, of truck drivers halting at Kalamboli Truck Terminal, Navi Mumbai. Method: This community based, cross sectional study was conducted by interviewing 300 male truck drivers using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data collected was compiled and analysed using Mean and Percentages. Results: Of the 300 truck drivers interviewed, mean age of first sexual encounter was 19.4 years. 270 truck drivers had experienced sexual intercourse and 30 had not. Out of 270 sexually exposed truck drivers, 40.7% had sex with commercial sex workers (CSWs) only, 1.1% with other men only, 0.7% with Transsexuals only and 7.5% with other known females. 5.9% had sex with multiple categories. Premarital sex was reported in 70.25% truck drivers and 28.4% married truck drivers had extramarital sex. Of the Truck drivers having sex outside marriage, 53% used condoms regularly. Of the 47% truck drivers who reported irregular / no use of condoms, the main reasons given were "Did not like to use as it affects sexual pleasure" (40.8%) and "Could not procure at spur of the moment" (36.7%). Conclusion: Owing to the migratory nature of their occupation and high risk sexual behaviour, truck drivers form a high risk group for contracting and spreading HIV/AIDS and other STIs. Thus there is an urgent need for intensifying effective strategies to educate truck drivers and to change their perceptions regarding safe sex. Source

Vidhale S.S.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Rathod P.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Mahendrakar M.N.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College | Patil K.,Mahatma Gandhi Missions Medical College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences

We came across a cadaver with bilateral high division of sciatic nerve. With Common peroneal nerve piercing through piriformis muscle, while tibial nerve passed below the piriformis. Apart from that medial sural cutaneous nerve was seen to arise as a very thin branch from tibial division and joining relatively thick lateral sural cutaneous nerve at the junction of upper 2/3rd and lower 1/3rd of leg, in the same cadaver bilaterally. High division of sciatic nerve both unilateral and bilateral with division of piriformis are frequently reported variations but subsequent variation in dimensions and union of cutaneous branches from its divisions, bilaterally in the same cadaver is important, considering the surgical importance of both the nerves. Source

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