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Taqi S.A.,University of Mumbai | Zaki S.A.,Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital | Nilofer A.R.,Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital | Sami L.B.,Mahatma Gandhi Mission Medical College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Pharmacology

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is a widely prescribed antimicrobial for the management of several uncomplicated infections. It is commonly used for the treatment and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in the HIV-infected population. The adverse reaction to TMP/SMX is more frequent and severe in HIV-infected patients as compared to the general population. Here, we report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) secondary to TMP/SMX. The patient had a generalized cutaneous reaction with involvement of the eyes, oral cavity, and genitals. He had elevated hepatic alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme. TMP/SMX therapy was stopped and supportive treatment was started. His condition improved after eight days of stopping TMP/SMX therapy. Source

Kalita D.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Shome D.,Apollo Hospitals | Jain V.G.,Mahatma Gandhi Mission Medical College and Hospital | Chadha K.,Metropolis Healthcare | Bellare J.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
American Journal of Ophthalmology

Purpose To study the intraocular distribution and safety of polymethylmethacrylate nanoparticles loaded with carboplatin after posterior subtenon injection in humans. Design Prospective, interventional, comparative case series. Methods Six patients (mean age: 26.83 ± 7.5 years), scheduled to undergo planned uniocular enucleation in an institutional setting, were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group received a 10 mg/mL posterior subtenon injection of nanoparticle carboplatin in the eye to be enucleated. Two eyes were enucleated 6, 24 and 72 hours post injection. Intravenous blood was collected during enucleation. The concentration of carboplatin reaching various intraocular tissues was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The drug toxicity in the ocular tissues was assessed by histopathology and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results The highest level of carboplatin was detected in retinas (8.33 ± 1.69 mg/g), up to 24 hours post treatment. The intravitreal concentration continued to increase gradually until 72 hours (3.46 ± 0.26 mg/g). The choroids and lenses showed very low levels of carboplatin after 6 hours, with negligible amounts at 72 hours. No signs of tissue damage were observed on histopathology or electron microscopy. Intravenous concentration of carboplatin was undetectable in all patients. Conclusion Results may indicate an increased facilitated trans-scleral transport of nanoparticle carboplatin, with a sustained-release behavior but without any associated short-term ocular or systemic side effects in humans. The very high concentrations achieved in vitreous and retina after a single posterior subtenon injection may be clinically useful for adjunctive treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma with vitreous seeds. However, further studies are needed to assess long-term toxicity and clinical efficacy. © 2014 by elsevier inc. all rights reserved. Source

Kalra G.,Mahatma Gandhi Mission Medical College and Hospital | Bhugra D.,Kings College London
Indian Journal of Psychiatry

Interpersonal violence whether it is sexual or nonsexual, remains a major problem in large parts of the world. Sexual violence against children and women brings with it long-term sequelae, both psychiatrically and socially. Apart from sexual gratification itself, sexual violence against women is often a result of unequal power equations both real and perceived between men and women and is also strongly influenced by cultural factors and values. Within sociocentric and ego-centric cultures, the roles and representations of genders, and attitudes toward sexual violence differ. Cultures which are described as feminist, provide equal power to both men and women. Sexual violence is likely to occur more commonly in cultures that foster beliefs of perceived male superiority and social and cultural inferiority of women. Although culture is an important factor to understand sexual violence in its entirety, we need to look at, as well as beyond cultural structures, their strengths and weaknesses. Source

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