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Sembian N.,Maharishi Markendeshwar University
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Polypharmacy is most common in the elderly, affecting about 40% of older adults living in their own homes. Polypharmacy means more than three drugs taken concurrently, more than three drugs taking occasion in the day. Polypharmacy is not a diagnosis given to a person by a doctor, but it is a phenomenon that carries as much risk as many other diagnosable disease states. It is important to understand the risk that polypharmacy poses, its causes, and what each person or care giver can do to minimize medication related problems. The fact that the medicines are often prescribed for "different conditions" is irrelevant to the patient's physiology. The idea that "we are doing the best we can," a frequent defense of polypharmacy, does not constitute a scientific argument in favor of it. © RJPT All right reserved. Source


Arora A.,Maharishi Markendeshwar University | Kamaluddin,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Adsorption Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The adsorption of indole onto chromium, iron and iron/chromium mixed oxides has been studied using UV-vis spectrophotometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the aim of obtaining an in-depth understanding of the adsorption mechanism. The maximum extent of adsorption was observed in acidic medium (pH ~ 4.0), the corresponding data being fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Chromium oxide showed a higher adsorption affinity than the other metal/mixed metal oxides studied. The adsorption of indole onto the various metal oxides was also studied by SEM methods. FT-IR studies of indole, the metal oxides and the indole-metal oxide adduct showed that interaction occurred through attraction between the positively charged surface of the metal oxides and the negatively charged indole moieties. Adominating factor in the adsorption mechanism could be the π-electron system of the indole molecule. The results of the present study suggest that metal oxides could play an important role in the adsorption and removal of toxicological compounds possessing an indole ring system. Source


Kumar R.,Jv Jain College | Sharma H.K.,Maharishi Markendeshwar University | Dogra P.,Jv Jain College
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Neodymium (III)-selective electrodes have been prepared by using tin (IV) antimonotungstate (SnSbW) and zirconium (IV) antimonotungstate (ZrSbW) as electro-active materials and epoxy resin as a binding material. In the case of SnSbW, best performance is exhibited by a membrane having the composition: tin (IV) antimonotungstate (50%) and epoxy resin (50%). It shows excellent response in the concentration range of 10-4M to 10-1MNd (III) ion with a super- Nernstian slope of 40.0 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of 20 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potential. In the case of ZrSbW, best performance is exhibited by a membrane having the composition: Zirconium (IV) antimonotungstate (40%) and epoxy resin (60%). It shows excellent response in the concentration range of 10-5M to 10-1M Nd (III) ion with a near-Nernstian slope of 25.0 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potential. Effect of internal solution has been studied and the electrode was successfully used in partially non-aqueous medium, too. Selectivity coefficients have been determined by FIM method, with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions. ZrSbW electrode can be used in the pH range of 2.9-9.9 and SnSbW shows pH range 3.0-9.0. Both the electrodes have been used as indicator electrodes in the potentiometric titration of Nd (III) ions against EDTA. © Taylor & Francis. Source


Sharma R.C.,Maharishi Markendeshwar University
International Journal of Vehicle Structures and Systems | Year: 2012

In this paper, the state of the art of railway vehicle dynamics is presented. Much of the attention is paid to the performance characteristics such as lateral stability, curving, multibody simulation, wheel to track interaction, ride quality and comfort. The scope and limitations of linear and nonlinear analyses for vehicle dynamics are reviewed. Two and three dimensional theories for wheel-to-track interaction are discussed. Detailed analysis of ride quality and comfort evaluation methods is presented. Some concluding remarks are discussed along with further directions of research in the railway vehicle dynamics. © 2012. MechAero Foundation for Technical Research & Education Excellence. Source


Sharma R.C.,Maharishi Markendeshwar University
International Journal of Vehicle Structures and Systems | Year: 2011

This paper details a coupled vertical-lateral 37 degrees of freedom mathematical model of an Indian Railway general sleeper ICF coach is formulated using Lagrangian dynamics. In this analysis, the vertical and lateral irregularities of railway track are incorporated as a random function of time. The simulated results are compared with the experimental data obtained through actual rail vehicle testing. The ride comfort is evaluated incorporating ISO 2631-1 standard. © 2011. MechAero Foundation for Technical Research & Education Excellence. Source

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