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Hemalatha K.S.,Bangalore University | Hemalatha K.S.,Maharanis Science College for Women | Rukmani K.,Bangalore University | Suriyamurthy N.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research | Nagabhushana B.M.,M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2014

Nanocomposites of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and ZnO have been synthesized using the solution casting technique for different concentrations of nano ZnO powder prepared by low temperature solution combustion method. The formation of polymer nanocomposite and changes in the structural and micro structural properties of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy and optical microscopy techniques (FTIR and UV-Visible). The surface morphology of PVA-ZnO nanocomposite films were elucidated using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The optical absorption spectrum of nano ZnO shows blue shift in the optical band gap energy with respect to characteristic bulk ZnO at room temperature, whereas PVA-ZnO hybrid films show red shift with respect to nano ZnO. The photoluminescence studies show that the intensity of the blue emission (470 nm) varies with change in concentration of ZnO with an optimum intensity observed at 10 mol% of ZnO. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Nageshbabu R.,Maharanis Science College for Women | Jyothi M.N.,Maharanis Science College for Women
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Drought and salinity stresses significantly altered microRNA (miRNA) expression in a dose-dependent manner in French bean seedlings. Salinity stress changed the miRNA expression levels from a 6.86-fold down-regulation to a 616.57-fold up-regulation. Alternatively, miRNAs were down-regulated by 2.68-fold and up-regulated 2810-fold under drought conditions. miR395 was most sensitive to both stresses and was upregulated by 616 and 2810-folds by 1.00% PEG and 0.4 M NaCl, respectively. Salinity and drought stresses also changed the expression of protein-coding genes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)]. The results suggest that miRNAs may play an important role in plant response to environmental abiotic stresses. Further investigation of miRNA-mediated gene regulation may elucidate the molecular mechanism of plant tolerance to abiotic stresses and has the potential to create a miRNA-based biotechnology for improving plant tolerance to drought and salinity stresses.


Padmanabha B.,Maharanis Science College for Women
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2015

The major ion concentration data has been processed using the HYCH-basic Computer programme. In this computer programme, the estimation of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Corrosivity Ratio (CR), USSL classification of water for salinity and sodium hazards and Permeability Index (PI) are employed. This study suggests that Sodium Percentage, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) recorded higher in the Kamana lake than in the Dalvoi lake. Sodium Adsorption Ratio and Corrosivity ratio documented higher in Dalvoi lake than Kamana lake. The water of Kamana lake is noncorrosive and in Dalvoi lake it is corrosive. According to USSL classification, the water of these two lakes indicated low salinity with high or very high sodium hazard. Permeability index recorded higher in the Kamana than in the Dalvoi lake. Permeability index documented highest during winter season followed by monsoon and lowest in the summer season. Influx of large quantity of domestic sewage decreased water level and increased dissolved solids might have decreased the permeability index in the summer season.


Chethana B.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Reddy C.N.,Maharanis Science College for Women | Rao K.J.,Indian Institute of Science
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2012

This paper reports investigation of Na 2O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Prasad A.G.D.,University of Mysore | Shyma T.B.,University of Mysore | Raghavendra M.P.,Maharanis Science College for Women
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2013

The tribes of Wayanad depend basically on different plants for their treatment. The field work documented about thirty two plant species used against digestive disorders. The plants used for the treatment with their botanical names, local name, mode of administration, status of plants and the tribes associated are listed in the form of table. Five different tribes, the kurichia, kuruma, kattunaika, paniya and adiya of Wayand district of Kerala state, India were interviewed. The interviewed tribal groups use plant parts either single or in combined form to treat digestive disorders like piles, ulcers, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, pinworm, vomiting, acidity, chest burning, jaundice and stomach pain. The tribal groups do not want to share their ancient traditional knowledge with other people. Moreover, the existing knowledge on traditional uses of medicinal plants are declining fast because of the lack of interest of young people to learn the traditional knowledge from the old tribal medical practitioner. So the documentation and conservation of the knowledge is essential.


Basha P.M.,Bangalore University | Rai P.,Bangalore University | Begum S.,Maharanis Science College for Women
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2011

Multigenerational evaluation was made in rats on exposure to high fluoride (100 and 200 ppm) to assess neurotoxic potential of fluoride in discrete areas of the brain in terms of lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzyme system. The rats were given fluoride through drinking water (100 and 200 ppm) and maintained subsequently for three generations. Fluoride treatment significantly increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione level in first-generation rats and these alterations were more pronounced in the subsequent second and thirdgeneration rats in both the doses tested. Decreased feed and water consumption, litter size and organ (brain) somatic index, marginal drop in body growth rate and mortality were observed in all three generations. Decreased antioxidant enzyme activity and increased malondialdehyde levels found in the present study might be related to oxidative damage that occurs variably in discrete regions of the brain. Results of this study can be taken as an index of neurotoxicity in rats exposed to water fluoridation over several generations. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.


Siddheshwar P.G.,Bangalore University | Vanishree R.K.,Maharanis Science College for Women | Melson A.C.,Maharanis Science College for Women
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2012

The effects of temperature-dependent viscosity, gravity modulation and thermo-mechanical anisotropies on heat transport in a low-porosity medium are studied using the Ginzburg-Landau model. The effect of gravity modulation is to decrease the Nusselt number, Nu and variable viscosity leads to increase in Nu. The thermo-mechanical anisotropies have opposite effect on Nu with thermal anisotropy decreasing the heat transport. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Basha P.M.,Bangalore University | Rai P.,Bangalore University | Begum S.,Maharanis Science College for Women
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2011

High-fluoride (100 and 200 ppm) water was administered to rats orally to study the fluoride-induced changes on the thyroid hormone status, the histopathology of discrete brain regions, the acetylcholine esterase activity, and the learning and memory abilities in multigeneration rats. Significant decrease in the serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels and decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in fluoridetreated group were observed. Presence of eosinophilic Purkinje cells, degenerating neurons, decreased granular cells, and vacuolations were noted in discrete brain regions of the fluoride-treated group. In the T-maze experiments, the fluoride-treated group showed poor acquisition and retention and higher latency when compared with the control. The alterations were more profound in the third generation when compared with the first-and second-generation fluoride-treated group. Changes in the thyroid hormone levels in the present study might have imbalanced the oxidant/antioxidant system, which further led to a reduction in learning memory ability. Hence, presence of generational or cumulative effects of fluoride on the development of the offspring when it is ingested continuously through multiple generations is evident from the present study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Vanishree R.K.,Maharanis Science college for Women | Siddheshwar P.G.,Bangalore University
Transport in Porous Media | Year: 2010

A linear stability analysis is performed for mono-diffusive convection in an anisotropic rotating porous medium with temperature-dependent viscosity. The Galerkin variant of the weighted residual technique is used to obtain the eigen value of the problem. The effect of Taylor-Vadasz number and the other parameters of the problem are considered for stationary convection in the absence or presence of rotation. Oscillatory convection seems highly improbable. Some new results on the parameters' influence on convection in the presence of rotation, for both high and low rotation rates, are presented. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Vanishree R.K.,Maharanis Science college for Women
Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2014

A linear stability analysis is performed to study the effects of through-flow and internal heat generation on the preferred mode of stationary thermal convection in a variable viscosity liquid saturating an anisotropic porous medium. The Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to obtain the eigenvalue of the problem. The influence of porous parameter, mechanical anisotropy parameter, Peclet number, thermal anisotropy parameter, Brinkman number and variable viscosity parameter on the stability of the system is analyzed. The problem suggests another method of controlling convection by externally controlling porous media damping and shear. This is in addition to the through-flow mechanism of regulating convection.

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