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Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-13a-2014 | Award Amount: 2.09M | Year: 2015

The exploitation of minerals in Europe is an indispensable activity to ensure that the present and future needs of the European society can be met. This means that sufficient access is required to explore and exploit minerals. At the same time the mineral needs of our society must be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Accordingly exploitable mineral deposits (known deposits, abandoned mines and historical mining sites) need to be assessed against other land uses, taking into account criteria such as habitats, other environmental concerns, priorities for settlements, etc. Access to mineral deposits, on the other hand, also meets public interests such as raw materials security (compared with many international access options). The deliberation between these diverse land uses requires adequate consideration of the exclusiveness, reversibility, and consequences on the surrounding. The overall objective of MINATURA 2020 is to develop a concept and methodology (i.e. a harmonised European regulatory/guidance/policy framework) for the definition and subsequent protection of mineral deposits of public importance in order to ensure their best use in the future. Providing a policy planning framework that comprises the sustainability principle for mining is the key driving force behind MINATURA.

The security of space assets are affected by the high-energy charged particle environment in the radiation belts. The controlling principal source and loss mechanisms in the radiation belts are not yet completely understood. During a geomagnetic storm the length of time during which space assets are in danger is determined by the loss mechanisms, particularly by relativistic electron precipitation. The primary mechanism for this precipitation is the interaction of several wave modes with resonant electrons which leads to scattering into the atmospheric loss cone. The nature of the wave activity and the interactions between the waves and radiation belt particles are strongly governed by the properties of the plasmasphere. At this point there are few existing and regular measurements of plasmaspheric properties, with existing plasmaspheric models lacking the structures known to exist in the real plasmasphere. There is evidence that enhanced wave activity and enhanced radiation belt losses occur due to such structures. In addition, there are large uncertainties concerning the fundamental nature of relativistic electron precipitation (REP), due to the difficulties of undertaking quality in-situ measurements. To address these uncertainties in this proposed project we will provide regular longitudinally-resolved measurements plasmaspheric electron and mass densities and hence monitor the changing composition of the plasmasphere, one of the properties which determines wave growth. This will allow us to develop a data assimilative model of the plasmasphere. At the same time, we will monitor the occurrence and properties of REP, tying the time-resolved loss of relativistic electrons to the dynamic plasmasphere observations. Our approach will primarily use ground-based networks of observing stations, operating in the ULF and VLF ranges, deployed on a worldwide level. Our proposal is made up of 6 work packages to meet these science goals.

The northern (upper) yard in the south-western quarry of the Mátyás Hill is considered as one of the classic sites which exposes the Triassic/Eocene contact. In the last century several, often contradictory descriptions were published about the structural position of the outcropping Triassic dolomite. It was usually interpreted as a formation which thrust over the Eocene limestone; however, according to the different authors the place and direction of the tectonic surface are different. The source of the problems is that this part of the quarry was abandoned in the earliest stage and no descriptions are available from its one-time condition. The geological characteristics were damaged by the quarrying. Moreover, due to the continuous collapse of the wall and the 6-10-m-high scree at the foot of the wall several features have been hidden. The matter is more complicated, because the features can be seen in a multiply broken-lined section; the average direction of the section, in which the Triassic core of the fold is exposed in 10-190° direction, whereas the direction of the long wall towards the South is 130-310°. The breccia in the wall was interpreted by previous authors (SCHAFARZIK, PÁVAI, JASKÓ, SCHRÉTER, etc.) as a friction breccia derived from the Triassic limestone (in fact dolomite) which stands out along the north-eastward dipping steep surface. The breccia is of different genetics in FODOR's work; due to synsedimentary reverse faulting the emerging Triassic block has been broken into pieces and its other part has been shifted onto the abrasional debris at the foot of the wall. Based on the latest studies the SE-NW fracture (described as a reverse fault in the literature) is situated within the Triassic dolomite; the Triassic-Eocene contact has not been moved by it, thus its pre-Late Eocene age can be reasonably assumed. The Triassic block was in almost horizontal position; it had not been affected by considerable tilting in the Late Eocene. Its eroded (karstified) surface was covered with a thin layer of terrestrial sediments. Over time, after its subsidence, it became overlain by an approximately 1 km-thick Upper Eocene - Oligocene succession. Subsequently, the succession was folded forming parallel folds and, compared to the north-eastern limb, the south-western limb underwent flexure-like, 40-50 m bending down along a 120-300° axis. The steep, south-western limb of the fold is almost parallel to the Triassic-Eocene contact at the foot of the wall. Due to plastic deformation this part was located in a depth of at least 1 km under the well insulating cover; therefore the folding cannot be considered as older than End-Oligocene. This type of fold is in connection with compressive forces; however, these forces have not led to regional folding because the blocks avoid it by uplift and subsidence (by faulting and reverse faulting in a wider sense); deformation occurred only in narrow zones. Due to stronger compression these zones may be torn up forming an imbricate structure. The tilting of the area, characterized by south-eastward dipping, took place after the folding. For lack of appropriate overlying sediments its exact age cannot be determined; nevertheless, it is older than the thermal water activity considered as Pleistocene.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2011.10.2-2 | Award Amount: 2.36M | Year: 2012

The proposed ERA-NET will deepen the cooperation of national program owners and administrators and thus be an enabler for the integration of national research and development agendas into a coherent European geothermal R&D program. Countries participating in the first instance in this ERA NET are chosen on the basis of their ambitions to include geothermal energy into their goals for 2020 and 2050 on the reduction of CO2 emissions. A cornerstone of the implementation will be the broadening of this ERA NET partnership by including additional European national program owners to ensure the appropriate geographic balance and complementarily. The Geothermal ERA-NET will focus on the utilization of geothermal energy, from direct heating use up to higher enthalpy resources and their corresponding use (e.g. power generation). To ensure appropriate linkages to related R&D activities (renewable heating and cooling via ground storage heat pumps, power distribution and transmission) the interface with related ERA-NETs such as ERACOBUILD or SmartGrids will be maintained to avoid overlap. The ERA NET will include technical and non-technical issues as long they can be considered to be exclusively applied to the support of geothermal energy utilization. A significant instrument will be the EERA Joint Programme on Geothermal Energy whose aim it is to contribute via research and development to the renewable energy targets for 2020 and beyond in member and associated states. Coordination activities will focus on implementation of commonly agreed objectives and joint activities and funding of joint transnational research actions

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-01 | Award Amount: 3.21M | Year: 2011

PanGeo is a service proposed in response to FP7 GMES Downstream Call 3 (released July 2009). The objective of PanGeo is to enable free and open access to geohazard information in support of GMES. This will be achieved by the generation of a validated Geohazard Data Layer supported by a Geohazard Summary for 52 of the largest towns listed in the GMES Land Themes Urban Atlas involving all 27 countries of the EU. Upon user enquiry, a PanGeo web-portal will automatically integrate the geohazard data with the Urban Atlas to highlight the polygons influenced. The datasets will be made discoverable, accessible and useable via a distributed web-map system as built and demonstrated by OneGeology Europe (www.onegeology-europe.eu). The key users of PanGeo are anticipated as: Local Authority planners and regulators who are concerned with managing development risk, National geological surveys and geoscience institutes who are obliged to collect geohazard data for public benefit, Policy-makers concerned with assessing and comparing European geological risk, much as the Urban Atlas data is used to compare the landcover/use status of European towns. Products will be made by integrating: a) interpreted InSAR terrain-motion data (derived from existing projects, e.g. ESA GSE Terrafirma plus new processing), b) geological information, and c) the landcover and landuse data contained within the Urban Atlas. The integration and interpretation, plus a validation of key features observed, will be made by the corresponding national Geological Survey for the towns concerned. It is planned to deliver the service for two Urban Atlas towns in each country of the EU (Luxembourg and Cyprus only 1), equalling fifty-two towns in total. The geological survey concerned will choose the towns for processing from the Urban Atlas list using their own knowledge as to where the information will be of most use, probably the largest towns, which, when extrapolated, would equal (13% of total EU urban population). User input to design will be facilitated by the Surveys contracted into the project and initiation of Local Authority Feedback Group. Terrafirma has shown the potential for the self-sustainability of services providing InSAR-derived terrain-motion data, as 30% of users have gone on to procure further product on a commercial basis. In PanGeo, it is anticipated that, by adding considerably more value as described above, and promoting the clear benefits of such key environmental information, that the local authorities of neighbouring towns will begin to demand similar.

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