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Sun M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Easton M.A.,Monash University | Stjohn D.H.,University of Queensland | Wu G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2013

Although refinement of the as-cast grain size of magnesium alloys by Zr is well established commercially, little research has been undertaken to optimize this refinement technology and to quantify the relative performance of different Mg-Zr master alloys. The performance of Mg-Zr master alloys was found to be related to (1) the number density of Zr particles between 1 and 5 μm in size where the master alloy with the largest number density of these particles exhibits the best refinement, and (2) the alloy's growth restriction factor (Q) where a linear relationship between grain size and 1/Q, was found to exist for each master alloy. An equation for predicting grain size based on the Interdependence model was developed. Further, the Interdependence Model was improved to be able to cater for an increasing Zr particle number density with increasing values of Q. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhu S.,RMIT University | Easton M.A.,RMIT University | Abbott T.B.,Magontec Ltd | Nie J.-F.,Monash University | And 4 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2015

Several families of magnesium die-casting alloys have been developed to operate at the elevated temperatures experienced in automotive powertrain applications. Most alloys are based on the Mg-Al system with alloying additions such as silicon, strontium, calcium, and rare earth elements (RE), although alloys with RE as the primary alloying constituent are also considered. This work presents an evaluation of the tensile properties and creep resistance of the most common magnesium die-casting alloys, in conjunction with the analysis of microstructure. The alloys investigated include AS31 (Mg-3Al-1Si), AJ52 (Mg-5Al-2Sr), MRI153A (Mg-9Al-1Ca-0.1Sr), MRI153M (Mg-8Al-1Ca-0.3Sr), MRI230D (Mg-6.5Al-2Ca-1Sn-0.3Sr), AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.2Sr), AE42 (Mg-4Al-2RE), AE44 (Mg-4Al-4RE), and AM-HP2+ (Mg-3.5RE-0.4Zn). It is shown that, among the various alloys evaluated, MRI230D, AXJ530, and AM-HP2+ have higher yield strength than the Al alloy A380, but the ductility is relatively low at room temperature for these alloys. In contrast, AS31 and the AE series alloys have very good room temperature ductility, but their yield strength is lower than that of A380. In terms of creep resistance, MRI230D, AXJ530, AE44, and AM-HP2+ are all comparable to the Al alloy counterpart at 423 K and 448 K (150 °C and 175 °C). Microstructural factors that are most important to the strength and creep resistance of the Mg die-casting alloys are discussed. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

Easton M.,RMIT University | Gavras S.,Monash University | Gibson M.,RMIT University | Gibson M.,Monash University | And 5 more authors.
Magnesium Technology | Year: 2016

Magnesium-rare earth based alloys generally show good creep resistance at elevated temperatures and are consequently very promising candidates for powertrain applications. However, for magnesium-rare earth alloys to be used in high pressure die-cast components, they also need to have sufficient die-castability. This paper analyses the data from a series of investigations into binary and ternary magnesium-rare earth (RE) based alloys with the REs including La, Ce, Nd, Y and Gd, with an aim to identify alloy compositions that are castable. It is found that Mg-La based alloys are least susceptible to hot tearing whilst alloys containing Nd, Y or Gd tend to have very high hot tearing susceptibility. The hot tearing susceptibility of Mg-RE-Zn and Mg-Al-RE alloys is also addressed. Copyright © 2016 by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. All rights reserved.

Gandel D.S.,Cooperative Research Center | Gandel D.S.,Monash University | Easton M.A.,Cooperative Research Center | Easton M.A.,Monash University | And 6 more authors.
Corrosion Science | Year: 2014

Sixteen custom binary Mg-Zr alloys and four commercial Zr-containing Mg-alloys were used to investigate the role of Zr on the corrosion of Mg. Mg-Zr alloys were manufactured with a range of different Zr concentrations. It was observed that the Mg-Zr alloys with a smaller mean Zr particle size had more Zr dissolved in solid solution. Both the Zr in solid solution and in metallic particle form were observed to have a deleterious effect on the corrosion rate of Mg. However, this deleterious effect is less pronounced to effect in alloys with multiple alloying additions. © 2013.

Gandel D.S.,Monash University | Easton M.A.,Monash University | Gibson M.A.,Monash University | Gibson M.A.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Magnesium Technology | Year: 2013

In this study, sixteen Mg-Zr alloys were produced to investigate the role of Zr on corrosion of Mg. Alloys were produced using two different commercial Mg-Zr master alloys commonly used for grain refining Mg, but which contain different Zr particle size distributions. It is seen that the master alloy with a smaller Zr particle size leads to an alloy containing more Zr in solid solution. The ratio of Zr in solid solution and in particle form was observed to have a marked effect on the corrosion of Mg.

Easton M.,RMIT University | Gibson M.,CSIRO | Zhu S.M.,RMIT University | Yang K.,Monash University | Abbott T.,Magontec Ltd
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2015

esearch into magnesium die-cast alloys from the Mg-Al-(Zn), Mg-Zn-(Al), Mg-rare earth (RE) and Mg-Al-RE systems is discussed. Particular attention is paid to factors influencing mechanical properties and castability. The nature and level of alloy addition is in all cases an important determinant of castability (cracking and fluidity) and mechanical properties (strength, ductility and creep resistance). The interplay of these factors shows considerable variation between different alloy systems. © (2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Easton M.A.,Monash University | Gibson M.A.,CSIRO | Zhu S.,Monash University | Abbott T.B.,Magontec Ltd.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2014

Hot-tearing susceptibility is an important consideration for alloy design. Based on a review of previous research, an a priori indicator for the prediction of an alloy's hot-tearing susceptibility is proposed in this article and is applied to a range of magnesium-rare earth (RE)-based alloys. The indicator involves taking the integral over the solid fraction/temperature curve between the temperature when feeding becomes restricted (coherency) and that when a three-dimension network of solid is formed (coalescence). The hot-tearing propensity of Mg-RE alloys is found to vary greatly depending on which RE is primarily used, due to the difference in the solidification range. Mg-Nd alloys are the most susceptible to hot tearing, followed by Mg-Ce-based alloys, while Mg-La alloys show almost no hot tearing. The proposed indicator can be well applied to hot-tearing propensity of the Mg-RE alloys. It is expected that the indicator could be used as an estimation of the relative hot-tearing propensity in other alloy systems as well. © 2014 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

Chen X.-B.,Monash University | Zhou X.,Monash University | Abbott T.B.,Monash University | Abbott T.B.,Magontec Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2013

A double-layered conversion coating system, consisting of magnesium hydroxide-magnesium/manganese phosphate, was applied to magnesium alloy AZ91D using an acidic manganese nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution. The coating structure, composition and morphology were characterised by SEM, EDX, XRD and XPS. A coating formation mechanism is proposed, and the effect of operating parameters, i.e. pH and temperature, on coating formation was systematically investigated, with optimised conditions able to produce coatings of high corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance of the coating was evaluated by electrochemical and salt spray testing. The double-layered coating system develops in three stages: initial substrate dissolution, formation of a dense magnesium hydroxide layer, and then co-deposition of magnesium and manganese phosphate film. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

— Magnesium Metal market growth in last few years is XX million, due to surge in demand for alloy products in automobile industry. With wide application in electronic industry like tablets, laptops, mobile Magnesium Metal market is expected to grow at faster pace in forecasted period. Light weight and comparable properties with aluminum metal, magnesium is used more in body parts of aircraft. Government regulation, environment concern dur to highly explosive will hamper the market in forecasted period. Regional Analysis “Asia-Pacific dominates the market during the forecast period” Region wise, Asia-Pacific has shown a significant growth in Magnesium Metal market accounting more than XX% of the total market. This share is attributed towards growth of industries in countries like China, Japan and South Korea where automobile, electronic and construction industry is growing rapidly. North America contribute significantly due to increase in use of magnesium metal in aircraft industry. Europe shows a relative steady growth as saturation in application industries. Key Player • Wenxi YinGuang Magnesium Industry (Group) Co. Ltd • Dead Sea Magnesium Ltd • RIMA Group • Magontec Ltd • POSCO • Solikamsk Magnesium Works OAO. • Taiyuan Tongxiang Magnesium Co. Ltd • Nippon Kinzoku • US Magnesium LLC • Latrobe Magnesium Ltd • Others Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 100 market data tables and figures spread in 136 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Magnesium Metal Market Information from 2014 to 2022" Scope of the study By Application  Aluminum alloy  Die Casting  Desulphurization  Metal Reduction  Others Study Objectives of Magnesium Metal Market: • To study market overview of the Magnesium Metal. • To estimate market size by product type, by application and region. • To provide insights about market drivers, restrains and opportunities of Magnesium Metal market. • To provide geographically market analysis and outlook for North America, Europe, Asia, and Rest of the World (ROW) and their countries. • To analyze the Global Magnesium Metal Market based on various factors- supply chain analysis, porters five force analysis etc. Table of Content 1 Executive Summary 2 Scope of the Report 2.1 Market Definition 2.2 Scope of the Study 3 Market Research Methodology 3.1 Research Process 3.2 Secondary Research 4 Market Landscape 4.1 Five Forces Analysis 4.2 Value Chain/Supply Chain of Global Magnesium Metal Market 5 Industry Overview of Global Magnesium Metal Market 6 Market Trends 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Growth Trends 6.3 Impact analysis 7. Global Magnesium Metal Market by Region 8. Global Magnesium Metal Market by Application (Aluminum alloy, Die Casting, Desulphurization, Metal Reduction and others) 9. Company Profiles 9.1 Wenxi Yin Guang Magnesium Industries (Group) Co. Ltd 9.2 Dead Sea Magnesium Ltd 9.3 RIMA Group 9.4 Magontec Ltd 9.5 POSCO 10 Conclusion Continued…. About Market Research Future At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. For more information, please visit

Ang H.Q.,RMIT University | Abbott T.B.,RMIT University | Abbott T.B.,Magontec Ltd | Zhu S.,RMIT University | And 2 more authors.
Materials and Design | Year: 2016

Magnesium and its alloys exhibit not only elastic and plastic behaviour but also anelastic behaviour upon loading. The presence of anelastic strain poses a challenge to the measurement of proof stress using conventional methods. As such, the proof stress measurement methods specified by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Standards Organization (ISO) are reviewed and applied to three common die-cast magnesium alloys including AE44, AM60 and AZ91. The methods in the standards give inconsistent results due largely to the inherent anelastic behaviour of these alloys. The widely used 0.2% offset strain method tends to underestimate proof stress while the 0.2% permanent plastic strain method requires repeated loading and unloading. In view of the fact that the non-equivalence between the offset strain and the residual plastic strain for magnesium alloys is a key obstacle to the accurate proof stress measurement, a conversion chart is constructed to enable the determination of the appropriate offset strain for a desired residual plastic strain for a range of magnesium alloys. It is also shown that employing a higher offset strain than 0.2% has an advantage in reproducibility of proof stress measurement. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

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