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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

Sarros G.,INFOTRIP SA | Tyrinopoulos Y.,Technological Educational Institute of Athens | Milli M.,SWARCO MIZAR S.p.A. | Locuratolo L.,Magneti Marelli | And 3 more authors.
19th Intelligent Transport Systems World Congress, ITS 2012 | Year: 2012

Metropolitan areas face ever increasing demands on their transportation systems. The VIAJEO project, co-funded by the EC DG Research, addresses traffic planning and operation challenges in those areas by designing, implementing and demonstrating an open platform to process and share data from different sources. The project aims to demonstrate the results in four cities: Athens, Sao Paulo, Beijing and Shanghai. The demonstration in Athens integrates floating vehicle data with traffic data collected from a variety of sources. The expected results are to deliver a complete and operational platform capable of supporting mobility services, new data collection and processing tools for transport planners. The Athens site entail three main services: a) Taxi fleet management and traffic information, b) End-user multi modal trip planning and traffic information and c) Observatory for Public Authorities and Traffic Planners. The aim of this paper is to briefly present the services implemented and the benefits which are obtained by using VIAJEO innovative platform. A discussion follows about the use of the services by their target groups and their contribution to the Directive 2010/40/EU and the efficiency of overall mobility in metropolitan areas through the case of Athens.


Grout S.,CNRS Complex Interprofessional Research in Aerothermochemistry | Blaisot J.-B.,CNRS Complex Interprofessional Research in Aerothermochemistry | Pajot K.,PSA Peugeot Citroen | Osbat G.,Magneti Marelli
Fuel | Year: 2013

In automotive application, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is used to control the NOx emissions from Diesel engines. The reducing agent, ammonia NH3, is produced by urea decomposition in spraying Urea-Water Solution (UWS) in hot exhaust gas. UWS evaporation is a crucial step in SCR system process. The effects of turbulence and spray/wall interactions are of paramount importance for the SCR process, not taken into account in the quiescent environment conditions usually considered in experiments related in the literature. In this work, UWS spray is investigated in a hot air stream. Test bench was designed to reach conditions similar to Diesel exhaust conditions in term of dimensions, temperature, air mass flow rate and injection strategies. UWS was sprayed in hot air stream canalized in transparent duct to enable optical access. Promising experimental techniques were performed to study the spray/wall interaction and spray evaporation in hot stream. An adapted backlight imaging technique was used to visualize the formation and development of liquid film caused by the impaction of spray on the duct wall. The variation of the area of the formed liquid film is quantified for several working conditions. UWS spray in the hot stream is examined with the Laser light Sheet Imaging (LSI) technique. The principle of this technique is to illuminate liquid drops with a laser sheet and to record the scattered-light at 90° with a CCD camera. Such measurements allow determining a 2D distribution of liquid that indicates the distribution of the liquid phase in a stream cross-section. We show that the evolution of 2D liquid distribution contains global information on the UWS drops evaporation and an evaporation rate can be estimated considering the Mie-scattered-light theory and D-square evaporation law. The experimental work is completed with a theoretical work that leads to the calculation of evaporation time of UWS drop in different aerothermodynamic conditions. Finally, this study promises interesting perspectives for the investigation of UWS spray evaporation in hot gas stream. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ravaglioli V.,University of Bologna | Moro D.,University of Bologna | Serra G.,Magneti Marelli | Ponti F.,University of Bologna
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

In modern Diesel engine control strategies the guideline is to perform an efficient combustion control, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions. Innovative control algorithms for optimal combustion positioning require the on-board evaluation of a large number of quantities. In order to perform closed-loop combustion control, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is MFB50, i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel mass burned within an engine cycle is reached. Furthermore, MFB50 allows determining the kind of combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber, therefore knowing such quantity is crucial for newly developed low temperature combustion applications (such as HCCI, HCLI, distinguished by very low NOx emissions). The aim of this work is to develop a virtual combustion sensor, that provides MFB50 estimated value as a function of quantities that can be monitored real-time by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). Modern technologies for Common Rail Multi-Jet Diesel engines allow designing injection patterns with many degrees of freedom, due to the large number of tunable injection parameters (such as rail pressure, start and duration of each injection-.). First, this paper describes a model of the combustion process developed in order to evaluate the energy release within the cylinder. A zero-dimensional approach based on the Wiebe function has been chosen, because it allows obtaining a model which is accurate enough for the analysis at a low computational cost. Once the combustion model has been developed it can be used to determine MFB50. The second section of this paper describes the existing correlations between the injection parameters and the identified Wiebe parameters. These correlations can be used for heat release and MFB50 on board estimation. Experimental tests have been performed running a turbocharged Common Rail Multi-Jet Diesel engine (with up to 4 injections within the same engine cycle) in order to determine the accuracy of the methodology. The described approach allows evaluating MFB50 as a function of the injection parameters as well as other quantities that can be monitored real-time by the ECU. Additional sensors are not necessary for this methodology, therefore it requires no extra cost. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.


Spakowski J.G.,Delphi Corporation | Spegar T.D.,Delphi Corporation | Mancini L.,Magneti Marelli
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

Fuel systems associated with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) engines operate at pressures significantly higher than Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine fuel systems. Because of these higher pressures, GDi fuel systems require a high pressure fuel pump in addition to the conventional fuel tank lift pump. Such pumps deliver fuel at high pressure to the injectors multiple times per engine cycle. With this extra hardware and repetitive pressurization events, vehicles equipped with GDi fuel systems typically emit higher levels of audible noise than those equipped with PFI fuel systems. A common technique employed to cope with pump noise is to cover or encase the pump in an acoustic insulator, however this method does not address the root causes of the noise. To contend with the consumer complaint of GDi system noise, Delphi and Magneti Marelli have jointly developed a high pressure fuel pump with reduced audible output by concentrating on sources of noise generation within the pump itself. This paper presents the development process of a low-noise GDi fuel pump. Typical vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) requirements and customer complaints are presented signifying the requirement for reduced noise. Internal sources of pump noise are discussed and solutions to reducing the noise from these sources are presented. Sound level measurements comparing the improved pump design with the baseline design and competitor pumps are shown. Implementing these solutions has helped produce a low-noise design and control strategies yielding a best-in-class high pressure fuel pump for passenger and light truck vehicles. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.


Ponti F.,University of Bologna | Ravaglioli V.,University of Bologna | Moro D.,University of Bologna | Serra G.,Magneti Marelli
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Proper design of the combustion phase has always been crucial for Diesel engine control systems. Modern engine control strategies' growing complexity, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions, requires on-board estimation of a growing number of quantities. In order to feedback a control strategy for optimal combustion positioning, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is the angular position where 50% of fuel mass burned over an engine cycle is reached (MFB50), because it provides important information about combustion effectiveness (a key factor, for example, in HCCI combustion control). In modern Diesel engines, injection patterns are designed with many degrees of freedom, such as the position and the duration of each injection, rail pressure or EGR rate. In this work a model of the combustion process has been developed in order to evaluate the energy release within the cylinder as a function of the injection parameters. In this case a zero-dimensional approach has been chosen, because it allows obtaining a model accurate enough for the analysis, with a low computational cost. Once the combustion model has been developed, it can be used to evaluate the cumulated heat release and, consequently, MFB50. MFB50 can also be evaluated using in-cylinder pressure sensors, nevertheless they would account for a relevant part of the whole engine control system's cost. On the contrary, if MFB50 is evaluated as a function of the injection parameters, the methodology does not require any additional cost. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a zero-dimensional combustion model, and verify if the level of accuracy obtained in MFB50 evaluation is compatible with engine management requirements. Many experimental tests have been performed on a turbocharged common rail multi-jet Diesel engine in order to identify the combustion model. The methodology described in this paper is suitable for Diesel engines with up to 4 injections within the same engine cycle. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.

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