Dagklis A.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute |
Dagklis A.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University |
Dagklis A.,MAGIC Microenvironment and Genes in Cancers of the Blood Interdivisional Research Program |
Ponzoni M.,MAGIC Microenvironment and Genes in Cancers of the Blood Interdivisional Research Program |
And 23 more authors.
Evidence from certain geographical areas links lymphomas of the ocular adnexa marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (OAMZL) with Chlamydophila psittaci (Cp) infection, suggesting that lymphoma development is dependent upon chronic stimulation by persistent infections. Notwithstanding that, the actual immunopathogenetical mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. As in other B-cell lymphomas, insight into this issue, especially with regard to potential selecting ligands, could be provided by analysis of the immunoglobulin (IG) receptors of the malignant clones. To this end, we studied the molecular features of IGs in 44 patients with OAMZL (40% Cp-positive), identifying features suggestive of a pathogenic mechanism of autoreactivity. Herein, we show that lymphoma cells express a distinctive IG repertoire, with electropositive antigen (Ag)-binding sites, reminiscent of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) recognizing DNA. Additionally, five (11%) cases of OAMZL expressed IGs homologous with autoreactive Abs or IGs of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease known for the expression of autoreactive IGs by neoplastic cells. In contrast, no similarity with known anti-Chlamydophila Abs was found. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that OAMZL may originate from B cells selected for their capability to bind Ags and, in particular, auto-Ags. In OAMZL associated with Cp infection, the pathogen likely acts indirectly on the malignant B cells, promoting the development of an inflammatory milieu, where auto-Ags could be exposed and presented, driving proliferation and expansion of self-reactive B cells. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source
Fazi C.,Laboratory of B Cell Neoplasia |
Scarfo L.,Laboratory of B Cell Neoplasia |
Scarfo L.,Lymphoma Unit |
Scarfo L.,University of Ferrara |
And 17 more authors.
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is classified as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like, atypical CLL, and CD5 -MBL. The number of B cells per microliter divides CLL-like MBL into MBL associated with lymphocytosis (usually detected in a clinical setting) and low-count MBL detected in the general population (usually identified during population screening). After a median follow-up of 34 months we reevaluated 76 low-count MBLs with 5-color flow cytometry: 90% of CLL-like MBL but only 44.4% atypical CLL and 66.7% CD5 - MBL persisted over time. Population-screening CLL-like MBL had no relevant cell count change, and none developed an overt leukemia. In 50% of the cases FISH showed CLL-related chromosomal abnormalities, including monoallelic or biallelic 13q deletions (43.8%), trisomy 12 (1 case), and 17p deletions (2 cases). The analysis of the T-cell receptor β (TRBV) chains repertoire showed the presence of monoclonal T-cell clones, especially among CD4 highCD8 low, CD8 highCD4 low T cells. TRBV2 and TRBV8 were the most frequently expressed genes. This study indicates that (1) the risk of progression into CLL for low-count population-screening CLL-like MBL is exceedingly rare and definitely lower than that of clinical MBL and (2) chromosomal abnormalities occur early in the natural history and are possibly associated with the appearance of the typical phenotype. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source
Arvaniti E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens |
Ntoufa S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens |
Papakonstantinou N.,G. Papanicolaou Hospital |
Touloumenidou T.,G. Papanicolaou Hospital |
And 14 more authors.
Background Signaling through the B-cell receptor appears to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Toll-like receptors bridge the innate and adaptive immune responses by acting as co-stimulatory signals for B cells. The available data on the expression of Toll-like receptors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are limited and derive from small series of patients. Design and Methods We profiled the expression of genes associated with Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in 192 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and explored potential associations with molecular features of the clonotypic B-cell receptors. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells express all Toll-like receptors expressed by normal activated B cells, with high expression of TLR7 and CD180, intermediate expression of TLR1, TLR6, TLR10 and low expression of TLR2 and TLR9. The vast majority of adaptors, effectors and members of the NFKB, JNK/p38, NF/IL6 and IRF pathways are intermediately-to-highly expressed, while inhibitors of Toll-like receptor activity are generally low-to-undetectable, indicating that the Toll-like receptor-signaling framework is competent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Significant differences were identified for selected genes between cases carrying mutated or unmutated IGHV genes or assigned to different subsets with stereotyped B-cell receptors. The differentially expressed molecules include receptors, NFkB/MAPK signaling molecules and final targets of the cascade. Conclusions The observed variations are suggestive of distinctive activation patterns of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in subgroups of cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia defined by the molecular features of B-cell receptors. Additionally, they indicate that different or concomitant signals acting through receptors other than the B-cell receptor can affect the behavior of the malignant clone. © 2011 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source
Scielzo C.,Laboratory of Lymphoid Malignancies |
Scielzo C.,University of Milan |
Apollonio B.,Laboratory of Lymphoid Malignancies |
Apollonio B.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University |
And 12 more authors.
Malignant B lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients maintain the capacity to respond to CD40 ligation, among other microenvironmental stimuli. In this study, we show that (i) leukemic CLL cells stimulated with the soluble form of CD40L in vitro show differential responses in terms of upregulation of surface markers (CD95 and CD80) and induction of chemokines (CCL22 and CCL17) expression/secretion, and that (ii) these changes are mirrored by a distinct activation of intracellular signalling pathways including increase in IKKalpha/beta phosphorylation and upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins (BCL-2 and MCL-1). CLL patients can then be segregated into two distinct functional subsets. We defined the responsive subset of cases CD40L dependent, considering the capacity to respond as a sign of persistent need of this stimulation for the leukemic expansion. Conversely, we named the unresponsive cases CD40L independent, considering them less dependent on this microenvironmental signal, presumably because of a higher autonomous proliferative and survival potential. Importantly, we report that (iii) the two functional subsets show an opposite clinical outcome, with CD40L-independent cases having a shorter time to progression. This indicates that the functional differences observed in vitro may reflect a different leukemic potential in vivo likely responsible for a distinct clinical course. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source