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Bargiacchi O.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | De Rosa F.G.,University of Turin
Infezioni in Medicina | Year: 2016

Central Nervous System (CNS) infections related to external ventricular derivation are a major complication of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. Antimicrobial treatment of CNS infections should be based not only on the susceptibility of the isolated microorganism, but also on the treatment’s pharmacokinetic properties demonstrating the passage of the molecule through the blood-brain barrier. When CNS infections are caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, intrathecal colistin is considered an effective and safe option. We review the literature of intrathecal/intraventricular use of colistin, comprehensive of both pharmacokinetic data and clinical experiences. © 2016, EDIMES Edizioni Medico Scientifiche. All rights reserved.

Bianchi V.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | Premaschi S.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | Raspagni A.,University of Insubria | Secco S.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Alcohol and Alcoholism | Year: 2014

Aims: In heavy alcohol consumption laboratory tests represent an objective evidence. In this study we compared older and newer biomarkers in blood and in hair.Methods: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), AST, ALT, GGT, MCV were measured in a large sample (n = 562). All people declared no alcohol consumption within the last 3 months. Serum CDT was measured by the candidate HPLC reference method and expressed as relative amount of disialotransferrin (%DST: cutoff 1.7%). EtG was measured in hair by a validated in-house method by LC-MS/MS (cutoff 30 pg/mg).Results: Respectively, 42 (7.5%) and 76 (13.5%) subjects were positive to CDT and EtG. In particular, 30 (5.3%) subjects were positive to both tests, 12 (2.1%) only to CDT, while 46 (8.2%) only to EtG. The agreement (positive and negative pairs) between CDT and EtG was 89.7%. Interestingly, 6 out of 12 (50%) CDT-positive subjects had EtG < 15 pg/mg, whereas 27 out of 46 (59%) EtG-positive subjects had CDT < 1.1%. Forty-one out of 76 (54%) EtG-positive subjects display EtG values within 30-50 pg/mg.Conclusion: Large variability exists between CDT and EtG in detecting chronic alcohol consumption. We suggest to use CDT, or a combination of different biomarkers, to identify alcohol abuse in a forensic context. EtG results close to the cutoff (30-50 pg/mg) should be cautiously considered before any sanction is assigned. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Bianchi V.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | Ivaldi A.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | Raspagni A.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | Arfini C.,Ss Antonio E Biagio E C Arrigo Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Alcohol and Alcoholism | Year: 2011

Aims: Contrasting data are available on the diagnostic accuracy of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) during pregnancy. These differences may depend in part on how CDT was evaluated and expressed. Here, we report on variations of CDT levels in pregnant women using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference method. Methods: Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, serum transferrin, urine and serum ethyl glucuronide and CDT were measured in 64 women, self-reporting as non-alcohol abusers (age: median 34, IQR: 28-38), at different stages of normal pregnancy (gestational weeks: median 28, IQR: 8-33). CDT was expressed as percentage of disialotransferrin to total transferrin (%CDT). Results: Transferrin was associated with both %CDT (r = 0.66; P < 0.001) and gestational week (r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Interestingly, %CDT was highly correlated with gestational week (r = 0.77; P < 0.001), even after controlling for the effect of transferrin. Moreover, statistically significant differences in %CDT were also evident between women grouped for pregnancy trimester (first trimester: mean 1.01% (SD 0.19); second trimester: 1.30% (SD 0.14); third trimester: 1.53% (SD 0.22); ANOVA P < 0.001). Trend analysis confirmed a proportional increase of %CDT along with pregnancy trimesters (P < 0.001). Conclusions: %CDT, measured with the HPLC candidate reference method, is independently associated with gestational week. Differently from what has been previously reported or expected, the relationship between pregnancy and CDT could be more complex. The diagnostic accuracy of CDT for detecting alcohol abuse in a legal context may be limited in pregnant women and the effect of gestational age should be considered. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Medical Council on Alcohol. All rights reserved.

Navarese E.P.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Kubica J.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Castriota F.,GVM Care and Research | Gibson C.M.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
EuroIntervention | Year: 2011

Aims: Drug-eluting stents (DES) are a major advance in interventional cardiology; however concerns have been raised regarding their long-term safety due to the permanent nature of the polymer. New generation stents with biodegradable polymers (BDS) have recently been developed. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the safety and efficacy profile of BDS vs. durable polymer DES. Methods and results: The MEDLINE/CENTRAL and Google Scholar databases were searched for RCTs comparing safety and efficacy of BDS vs. DES. Safety endpoints were mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and stent thrombosis (ST). Efficacy endpoints were target vessel revascularisation (TVR), target lesion revascularisation (TLR) and six-month in-stent late loss (ISLL). The meta-analysis included eight RCTs (n=7,481). At a median follow-up of nine months, as compared to DES, BDS use did not increase mortality (OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.69-1.22], p=0.53) or MI (OR [95% CI] = 1.14 [0.90-1.44], p=0.29). Rate of late/very late ST was significantly reduced in BDS patients (OR [95% CI] = 0.60 [0.39-0.91], p=0.02), as was six-month ISLL (mean difference [95% CI] = -0.07 [-0.12; -0.02] mm, p=0.004) in comparison with DES patients. Rates of TVR and TLR were comparable between BDS and DES. Conclusions: BDS are at least as safe as standard DES with regard to survival and MI, and more effective in reducing late ST, as well as six-month ISLL. Further large RCTs with long-term follow-up are warranted to definitively confirm the potential benefits of BDS. © Europa Edition 2011. All rights reserved.

Vicariotto F.,Gynaecology Unit San Pio X Nursing Home | Mogna L.,Biolab Research Ltd. | Del Piano M.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common reason for abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive-age women and one of its most important causative agents is the gram-variable bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is not accompanied by significant local inflammation, whereas the "fishy odor" test is always positive. In contrast, aerobic vaginitis (AV) is predominantly associated with Escherichia coli, but Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus are also involved. Standard treatment of BV consists of oral or intravaginal antibiotics, although these are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by a high concentration of lactobacilli. The main limitation is the inability to offer a long-term defensive barrier, thus facilitating relapses and recurrences. This study was undertaken firstly to assess the ability of selected lactobacilli to in vitro antagonize G. vaginalis to determine an association with a strain able to inhibit E. Coli, thus identifying a possible use in AV. The second step of the study was to conduct a human pilot trial in women affected by BV using an association of the most promising and active bacteria.Materials and Methods: For this purpose, neutralized supernatants of individual lactobacilli were tested at percentages ranging from 0.5% to 4% to determine their ability to hinder the growth of G. vaginalis American Type Culture Collection 10231. The bacterium that was able to exert the strongest inhibition was subsequently tested with Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 in a human intervention, placebo-controlled, pilot trial involving 34 female subjects (aged between 18 and 50, mean 34.7±8.9, no menopausal women) diagnosed with BV. The 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 (DSM 26955) and L. plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) were delivered to the vagina by means of slow-release vaginal tablets, also containing 50mg of tara gum. The amount of each strain was 400 million live cells per dose. The women were instructed to apply a vaginal tablet once a day for 7 consecutive nights, followed by 1 tablet every 3 nights for a further 3-week application (acute phase) and, finally, 1 tablet per week to maintain a long-term vaginal colonization against possible recurrences. A clinical examination was performed and the Nugent score was quantified for each patient at enrollment (d0), after 28 days (d28), and at the end of the second month of relapse prevention (d56). A statistical comparison was made between d28, or d56, and d0, and between d56 and d28 to quantify the efficacy against possible recurrences.Results: L. Fermentum LF15 showed the strongest in vitro inhibitory activity towards G. vaginalis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 10231 after both 24 and 48 hours. In the human trial, the 2 lactobacilli selected, namely L. Fermentum LF15 and L. plantarum LP01, significantly reduced the Nugent score below the threshold of 7 after 28 days in 22 patients of 24 in the active group (91.7%, P<0.001). Eight women (33.3%) recorded a Nugent score between 4 and 6, evidence of an intermediate situation, whereas the remaining 14 (58.3%) showed a score 4, therefore suggesting the restoration of physiological vaginal microbiota. At the end of the second month, only 4 women registered a Nugent score 7, definable as BV (16.7%, P=0.065 compared with d28). In the placebo group, no significant differences were recorded at any time.Conclusions: BV, also known as vaginal bacteriosis is the most common cause of vaginal infection in women of childbearing age. Furthermore, BV is often asymptomatic as about 50% of women with this condition have no symptoms at all and the prevalence rate in apparently healthy women is around 10%. This study suggests the ability of the 2 strains L. Fermentum LF15 and L. plantarum LP01 to counteract acute Gardnerella infections effectively and significantly improve the related uncomfortable symptoms in a very high percentage of women. This could be partially attributed to the presence of tara gum, which is able to create a mechanical barrier against Gardnerella on the surface of vaginal mucosa as a primary mechanism. Furthermore, long-term physiological protection seems to be established, thanks to the integration of the 2 lactobacilli into the vaginal microbiota and to their adhesion to the epithelial cells of the mucosa. In the light of the additional in vitro inhibitory activity against E. Coli, their prospective use in AV could also prove interesting. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Vaschetto R.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | Cammarota G.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | Colombo D.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | Longhini F.,University of Piemonte Orientale | And 6 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES:: Evaluating the physiologic effects of varying depths of propofol sedation on patient-ventilator interaction and synchrony during pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. DESIGN:: Prospective crossover randomized controlled trial. SETTING:: University hospital ICU. PATIENTS:: Fourteen intubated patients mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure. INTERVENTIONS:: Six 25-minute trials randomly performed applying both pressure support ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist during wakefulness and with two doses of propofol, administered by Target Control Infusion, determining light (1.26 ± 0.35 μg/mL) and deep (2.52 ± 0.71 μg/mL) sedation, as defined by the bispectral index and Ramsay Sedation Scale. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: We measured electrical activity of the diaphragm to assess neural drive and calculated its integral over time during 1 minute (∫electrical activity of the diaphragm/min) to estimate diaphragm energy expenditure (effort), arterial blood gases, airway pressure, tidal volume and its coefficient of variation, respiratory rate, neural timing components, and calculated the ineffective triggering index. Increasing the depth of sedation did not cause significant modifications of respiratory timing, while determined a progressive significant decrease in neural drive (with both modes) and effort (in pressure support ventilation only). In pressure support ventilation, the difference in ineffective triggering index between wakefulness and light sedation was negligible (from 5.9% to 7.6%, p = 0.97); with deep sedation, however, ineffective triggering index increased up to 21.8% (p < 0.0001, compared to both wakefulness and light sedation). With neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, ineffective triggering index fell to 0%, regardless of the depth of sedation. With both modes, deep sedation caused a significant increase in PaCO2, which resulted, however, from different breathing patterns and patient-ventilator interactions. CONCLUSIONS:: In pressure support ventilation, deep propofol sedation increased asynchronies, while light sedation did not. Propofol reduced the respiratory drive, while breathing timing was not significantly affected. Gas exchange and breathing pattern were also influenced by propofol infusion to an extent that varied with the depth of sedation and the mode of ventilation. © 2013 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

Maggiore S.M.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Idone F.A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Vaschetto R.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | Festa R.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: Oxygen is commonly administered after extubation. Although several devices are available, data about their clinical efficacy are scarce. Objectives: To compare the effects of the Venturi mask and the nasal high-flow(NHF) therapy on PaO2/FIO2SET ratio after extubation. Secondary endpoints were to assess effects on patient discomfort, adverse events, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Randomized, controlled, open-label trial on 105 patients with a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than or equal to 300 immediately before extubation. The Venturi mask (n = 52) or NHF (n = 53) were applied for 48 hours postextubation. Measurements and Main Results: PaO2/FIO2SET, patient discomfort caused by the interface and by symptoms of airways dryness (on a 10-point numerical rating scale), interface displacements, oxygen desaturations, need for ventilator support, and reintubation were assessed up to 48 hours after extubation. From the 24th hour, PaO2/FIO2SET was higherwith the NHF (287± 74 vs. 247 ± 81 at 24 h; P = 0.03). Discomfort related both to the interface and to airways dryness was better with NHF (respectively, 2.6 ± 2.2 vs. 5.1 ± 3.3 at 24 h, P = 0.006; 2.2 ± 1.8 vs. 3.7 ± 2.4 at 24 h, P = 0.002). Fewer patients had interface displacements (32% vs. 56%; P = 0.01), oxygen desaturations (40% vs. 75%; P < 0.001), required reintubation (4% vs. 21%; P = 0.01), or any form of ventilator support (7% vs. 35%; P < 0.001) in the NHF group. Conclusions: Compared with the Venturi mask, NHF results in better oxygenation for the same set FIO2 after extubation. Use of NHF is associated with better comfort, fewer desaturations and interface displacements, and a lower reintubation rate. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01575353). Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society.

Fossaceca R.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Guzzardi G.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Cerini P.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Cusaro C.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | And 5 more authors.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in a selected population of diabetic patients with below-the-knee (BTK) disease and to analyze the reliability of the angiosome model. Methods: We made a retrospective analysis of the results of PTA performed in 201 diabetic patients with BTK-only disease treated at our institute from January 2005 to December 2011. We evaluated the postoperative technical success, and at 1, 6, and 12 months' follow-up, we assessed the rates and values of partial and complete ulcer healing, restenosis, major and minor amputation, limb salvage, and percutaneous oximetry (TcPO2) (Student's t test). We used the angiosome model to compare different clinicolaboratory outcomes in patients treated by direct revascularization (DR) from patients treated with indirect revascularization (IR) technique by Student's t test and the χ2 test. Results: At a mean ± standard deviation follow-up of 17.5 ± 12 months, we observed a mortality rate of 3.5 %, a major amputation rate of 9.4 %, and a limb salvage rate of 87 % with a statistically significant increase of TcPO2 values at follow-up compared to baseline (p < 0.05). In 34 patients, treatment was performed with the IR technique and in 167 by DR; in both groups, there was a statistically significant increase of TcPO2 values at follow-up compared to baseline (p < 0.05), without statistically significant differences in therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion: PTA of the BTK-only disease is a safe and effective option. The DR technique is the first treatment option; we believe, however, that IR is similarly effective, with good results over time. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE).

Monzani A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Rapa A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Fonio P.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital | Tognato E.,University of Piemonte Orientale | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to evaluate performance of serum antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides (a-DGPs) in detecting compliance with gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with celiac disease (CD). PATIENTS AND METHODS:: Serum samples were collected the same day of endoscopy in 95 children with CD and 106 controls. We preliminarily calculated the cutoff of a-DGP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and a-DGP IgA+G in our population by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 95 children with CD, 28 were studied during the first year after GFD introduction, with interview and serum collection every 3 months. In addition, serum samples were collected in 106 children with CD on GFD for more than 1 year (range 1-14). In both groups of children with CD on GFD, we compared a-DGP IgA and IgA+G performance in monitoring compliance with GFD with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) IgA and anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) IgA. RESULTS:: The cutoff resulted in 13.1 arbitrary units (AU) for a-DGP IgA (sensitivity 87.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79%-92%, specificity 97.2, 95% CI 92%-99%) and 16.5 for a-DGP IgA+G (sensitivity 94.7, 95% CI 88%-98%, specificity 89.6, 95% CI 84%-95%). In the first year of GFD, at 6 to 8 months prevalence of positive a-DGPs was significantly higher in partially versus strictly compliant children, and at 9 to 12 months only prevalence of positive a-DGP IgA+G remained significantly higher. Moreover, at 9 to 12 months sensitivity to detect transgressions to GFD was 44% for a-DGP IgA and 100% for a-DGP IgA+G (P = 0.03). In the 106 children on GFD for more than 1 year, sensitivity to detect transgressions to GFD was 60% for a-DGP IgA and 76% for a-DGP IgA+G. Anti-tTG IgA and AGA IgA sensitivity was much lower (24% and 4%, respectively). The 4 tests showed comparable high specificity. CONCLUSIONS:: Both a-DGPs showed higher sensitivity than anti-tTG IgA and AGA IgA in monitoring compliance with GFD, but a-DGP IgA+G seemed to perform better. a-DGPs did not outperform anti-tTG IgA for CD screening. Copyright 2011 by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN.

Cammarota G.,Maggiore della Carita Hospital
Anesthesiology | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Compared to pneumatically controlled pressure support (PSP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) was proved to improve patient–ventilator interactions, while not affecting comfort, diaphragm electrical activity (EAdi), and arterial blood gases (ABGs). This study compares neurally controlled pressure support (PSN) with PSP and NAVA, delivered through two different helmets, in hypoxemic patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for prevention of extubation failure. METHODS:: Fifteen patients underwent three (PSP, NAVA, and PSN) 30-min trials in random order with both helmets. Positive end-expiratory pressure was always set at 10 cm H2O. In PSP, the inspiratory support was set at 10 cm H2O above positive end-expiratory pressure. NAVA was adjusted to match peak EAdi (EAdipeak) during PSP. In PSN, the NAVA level was set at maximum matching the pressure delivered during PSP by limiting the upper pressure. The authors assessed patient comfort, EAdipeak, rates of pressurization (i.e., airway pressure-time product [PTP] of the first 300 and 500 ms after the initiation of patient effort, indexed to the ideal pressure–time products), and measured ABGs. RESULTS:: PSN significantly increased comfort to (median [25 to 75% interquartile range]) 8 [7 to 8] and 9 [8 to 9] with standard and new helmets, respectively, as opposed to both PSP (5 [5 to 6] and 7 [6 to 7]) and NAVA (6 [5 to 7] and 7 [6 to 8]; P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Regardless of the interface, PSN also decreased EAdipeak (P < 0.01), while increasing PTP of the first 300 ms from the onset of patient effort, indexed to the ideal PTP (P < 0.01) and PTP of the first 500 ms from the onset of patient effort, indexed to the ideal PTP (P < 0.001). ABGs were not different among trials. CONCLUSIONS:: When delivering noninvasive ventilation by helmet, compared to PSP and NAVA, PSN improves comfort and patient–ventilator interactions, while not ABGs. Copyright © by 2016, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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