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Maffra, Australia

Sutherland I.A.,Agresearch Ltd. | Bullen S.L.,Maffra Veterinary Center | Bullen S.L.,University of Melbourne
Animal Production Science | Year: 2015

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites are one of the most production-limiting infections of pasture-based dairy cattle in Australasia. Intensification of dairy production systems in both countries has meant that farmers have come to rely heavily on anthelmintic drenches to control GIN parasitism. However, anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in New Zealand, particularly to the market-leading macrocyclic-lactones. Less work has been conducted on anthelmintic resistance in Australia but preliminary results of a study currently underway suggests that there are high levels of resistance on Victorian dairy farms. The identification and mitigation of risk factors for the development of resistance is crucial for long-term sustainability of control. These include the use of drenches with variable efficacy - particularly pour-on and injectable formulations. New Zealand studies suggest that this may be as a result of active not reaching parasites within the gut lumen as effectively as oral formulations. Also, the raising of young stock as monocultures is a risk factor for the development of resistance as it significantly reduces the numbers of unselected (and presumably susceptible) parasites on pasture. These risks can be mitigated: using effective drenches removes more resistant parasites. This often means the use of combination products containing more than one anthelmintic class. Combination products are more effective in the face of existing resistance, and can slow the development of resistance. Also, ensuring an adequate level of unselected parasites on pasture for ingestion by young stock will delay the development of resistance. While there are differences between dairying systems, both countries are likely to benefit from more active and collaborative research efforts to improving parasite control practices on dairy farms in their respective countries. © CSIRO 2015.

Coombe J.E.,University of Melbourne | Pyman M.F.,University of Melbourne | Mansell P.D.,University of Melbourne | Auldist M.J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

The effects of feeding and management systems on the health and welfare of grazing dairy cows were investigated by comparing the claw health of cows fed grain during milking and pasture silage in the paddock (Control), with cows fed a grain-based partial mixed ration (PMR) on a concrete feed pad. Cows were assessed on three occasions during lactation: (1) early lactation (20-81. days in milk [DIM]) before allocation to feeding treatments; (2) mid-lactation (97-158 DIM) immediately following an intensive feeding experiment, and (3) late lactation (173-243 DIM) several months after return to initial management groups. At the final examination, claw puncture resistance was measured.The results showed that for the most prevalent lesions (white line disease, paintbrush haemorrhage and traumatic bruising), there was no effect of feeding system or amount of supplement on the presence of the moderate to severe forms in early lactation, but cows were more likely to have a particular lesion at the second assessment if it was present in early lactation. Puncture resistance of the claw was not related to presence of a lesion for any of the most prevalent lesion types. It was concluded for this herd that for most indicators of claw health, there was no overall effect of different feeding systems (supplement fed during milking or on a feed pad) or amount of supplement. © 2013.

Perera P.K.,University of Melbourne | Gasser R.B.,University of Melbourne | Read E.,La Trobe University | Malmo J.,Maffra Veterinary Center | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2015

This study employed a semi-quantitative, multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to assess the prevalence and infection intensity of four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of Theileria orientalis in cattle in Australia. Genomic DNA samples from blood samples (n=. 448) collected from 27 to 32 dairy cows from each of 15 dairy herds with a history of recent theileriosis outbreaks (Group 1), and from blood samples available from 24 cows with or without oriental theileriosis (Group 2) were tested using MT-PCR. Results revealed that all four genotypes were present in Group 1 cattle; genotype buffeli had the highest prevalence (80.5%), followed by genotypes ikeda (71.4%), chitose (38.6%) and type 5 (20.3%). Genotype ikeda had the highest average infection intensity in the cattle (relating to 55,277 DNA copies), followed by buffeli, chitose and type 5 (6354-51,648 copies). For Group 2, results indicated that genotype ikeda had a significantly higher average intensity of infection than buffeli in symptomatic cattle (P<. 0.001), and symptomatic cattle had a higher intensity of ikeda than asymptomatic cattle (P=. 0.004). Future studies should assess the utility of the present MT-PCR assay as a diagnostic and epidemiological tool in other parts of Australasia and the world. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Abureema S.,RMIT University | Smooker P.,RMIT University | Malmo J.,Maffra Veterinary Center | Deighton M.,RMIT University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

This study was undertaken because clinicians and farmers have observed that a considerable number of cows diagnosed with Streptococcus uberis mastitis have recurrences of mastitis in the same or a different quarter. The study was an attempt to answer whether these recurring cases were due to treatment failure (in which case a search would have begun for a better treatment for Strep. uberis mastitis) or due to reinfection with a different strain of Strep. uberis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we determined that the majority of recurrences (20 of 27) were caused by a new strain of Strep. uberis, indicating that treatment of the initial infection had been successful. A small number of recurrences (5 of 27) were caused by the initial strain, indicating persistence. The remaining 2 recurrences occurred in a new quarter but with the initial strain of Strep. uberis, indicating either spread between quarters or reactivation of a previous subclinical infection. Analysis of the PFGE profiles failed to reveal any strain-specific propensity to persist, because strains causing recurrences occurred in most of the major clusters. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

Runciman D.J.,Maffra Veterinary Center | Malmo J.,Maffra Veterinary Center | Deighton M.,RMIT University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Cows (n=2,053) from 6 seasonally calving dairy herds were enrolled in a trial to compare the efficacy of 2 dry cow treatments. Cows received either a combination dry cow therapy of 600. mg of cloxacillin (CL) followed by an internal teat sealant (ITS) containing 2.6. g of bismuth subnitrate in all 4 quarters immediately following their final milking for the season, or only an intramammary infusion of 600. mg of CL. All cases of clinical mastitis were recorded and cultured during the first 150 d of lactation in each herd, and cow somatic cell count (SCC) was measured between 7 and 50 d postcalving. A large difference was found between treatment groups in the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis over the first 21 d of lactation, after which time the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis was similar between treatment groups. Analysis of the relative proportions of cows with clinical mastitis was performed at both the gland and cow levels. The relative risk (RR) of clinical mastitis diagnosed within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving in a gland treated with the ITS-CL combination was, respectively, 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.44], 0.39 (0.28-0.53), and 0.58 (0.46-0.75) that of the CL group. An interaction between treatment and previous SCC was found when clinical mastitis was analyzed at the cow level. In a subset of cows that had low SCC in their previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in cows with the ITS-CL combination within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI=0.33-0.87), 0.57 (0.37-0.88), and 0.69 (0.50-0.99) that of cows that received only CL at drying off. In the subset of cows that had at least 1 high SCC in the previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in the ITS-CL combination group within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI=0.16-0.44), 0.37 (0.24-0.57), and 0.72 (0.55-0.96) that of the CL-only group. The ITS-CL combination of dry cow treatments was associated with a reduction in subclinical mastitis [SCC ≥250,000. cells/mL; RR=0.80 (95% CI=0.65-0.98)] when compared with treatment with CL alone. The use of an ITS in combination with CL dry cow treatment was associated with significantly lower clinical and subclinical mastitis in the following lactation, with a greater difference found in cows that had a history of subclinical mastitis in the previous lactation. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

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