Maes Clinics at Tria

Bangkok, Thailand

Maes Clinics at Tria

Bangkok, Thailand
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Maes M.,Maes Clinics at TRIA | Fisar Z.,Charles University | Medina M.,Noscira | Scapagnini G.,University of Molise | And 3 more authors.
Inflammopharmacology | Year: 2012

This paper reviews new drug targets in the treatment of depression and new drug candidates to treat depression. Depression is characterized by aberrations in six intertwined pathways: (1) inflammatory pathways as indicated by increased levels of proinflammatory cyto-kines, e.g. interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor α. (2) Activation of cell-mediated immune pathways as indicated by an increased production of interferon γ and neopterin. (3) Increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), including lipid peroxidation, damage to DNA, proteins and mitochondria. (4) Lowered levels of key antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase. (5) Damage to mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA and reduced activity of respiratory chain enzymes and adenosine triphosphate production. (6) Neuroprogression, which is the progressive process of neurodegeneration, apoptosis, and reduced neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity, phenomena that are probably caused by inflammation and O&NS. Antidepressants tend to normalize the above six pathways. Targeting these pathways has the potential to yield antidepressant effects, e.g. using cytokine antagonists, minocycline, Cox-2 inhibitors, statins, acetylsalicylic acid, ketamine, ω3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors. These six pathways offer new, pathophysiologically guided drug targets suggesting that novel therapies could be developed that target these six pathways simultaneously. Both nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activators and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors target the six above-mentioned pathways. GSK-3 inhibitors have antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors have the potential to be advanced to phase-2 clinical trials to examine whether they augment the efficacy of antidepressants or are useful as monotherapy. © 2011 CARS.


Morris G.,Tir Na Nog | Maes M.,Maes Clinics at TRIA | Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2013

This paper proposes a neuro-immune model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A wide range of immunological and neurological abnormalities have been reported in people suffering from ME/CFS. They include abnormalities in proinflammatory cytokines, raised production of nuclear factor-κB, mitochondrial dysfunctions, autoimmune responses, autonomic disturbances and brain pathology. Raised levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), together with reduced levels of antioxidants are indicative of an immuno-inflammatory pathology. A number of different pathogens have been reported either as triggering or maintaining factors. Our model proposes that initial infection and immune activation caused by a number of possible pathogens leads to a state of chronic peripheral immune activation driven by activated O&NS pathways that lead to progressive damage of self epitopes even when the initial infection has been cleared. Subsequent activation of autoreactive T cells conspiring with O&NS pathways cause further damage and provoke chronic activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. The subsequent upregulation of proinflammatory compounds may activate microglia via the vagus nerve. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines together with raised O&NS conspire to produce mitochondrial damage. The subsequent ATP deficit together with inflammation and O&NS are responsible for the landmark symptoms of ME/CFS, including post-exertional malaise. Raised levels of O&NS subsequently cause progressive elevation of autoimmune activity facilitated by molecular mimicry, bystander activation or epitope spreading. These processes provoke central nervous system (CNS) activation in an attempt to restore immune homeostatsis. This model proposes that the antagonistic activities of the CNS response to peripheral inflammation, O&NS and chronic immune activation are responsible for the remitting-relapsing nature of ME/CFS. Leads for future research are suggested based on this neuro-immune model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Maes M.,Maes Clinics at Tria | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Leunis J.-C.,Laboratory Ategis | Berk M.,Mental Health Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica | Year: 2013

Objective: Depression is accompanied by activation of immuno-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways, and increased IgM/IgA responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative commensal bacteria. The latter suggests that bacterial translocation has caused IgM/IgA responses directed against LPS. Bacterial translocation may drive IO&NS responses. Method: To examine the associations between IgM/IgA responses to LPS and IO&NS measurements, including plasma/serum interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, neopterin, lysozyme, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, peroxides, and IgM (auto)immune responses against malondialdehyde (MDA), azelaic acid, phophatidyl inositol (Pi), NO-tryptophan and NO-tyrosine in depressed patients and controls. Results: We found significant positive associations between IgM/IgA responses to LPS and oxLDL antibodies, IgM responses against MDA, azelaic acid, Pi, NO-tryptophan, and NO-tyrosine. The IgA responses to LPS were correlated with lysozyme. There were no significant positive correlations between the IgM/IgA responses to LPS and IL-1 and neopterin. Conclusion: The findings show that in depression there is an association between increased bacterial translocation and lysozyme production, an antibacterial compound, O&NS processes, and autoimmune responses directed against O&NS generated neoantigenic determinants. It is suggested that bacterial translocation may drive IO&NS pathways in depression and thus play a role in its pathophysiology. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Maes M.,Maes Clinics at TRIA | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Obuchowiczwa E.,University of Silesia | Goehler L.,University of Virginia | Brzeszcz J.,Oil and Gas Institute
Neuroendocrinology Letters | Year: 2011

There is now evidence that depression, as characterized by melancholic symptoms, anxiety, and fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms, is the clinical expression of peripheral cell-mediated activation, inflammation and induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways and of central microglial activation, decreased neurogenesis and increased apoptosis. This review gives an explanation for the multiple "co-morbidities" between depression and a large variety of a) brain disorders related to neurodegeneration, e.g. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke; b) medical disorders, such as cardiovascular disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, leaky gut, diabetes type 1 and 2, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and HIV infection; and c) conditions, such as hemodialysis, interferon-a-based immunotherapy, the postnatal period and psychosocial stressors. The common denominator of all those disorders/ conditions is the presence of microglial activation and/or activation of peripheral IO&NS pathways. There is evidence that shared peripheral and / or central IO&NS pathways underpin the pathophysiology of depression and the previously mentioned disorders and that activation of these IO&NS pathways contributes to shared risk. The IO&NS pathways function as a smoke sensor that detect threats in the peripheral and central parts of the body and signal these threats as melancholic, anxiety, and fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms. The presence of concomitant depression is strongly associated with a lower quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality in medical disorders. This may be explained since depression contributes to increased (neuro)inflammatory burden and may therefore drive the inflammatory and degenerative progression. It is concluded that the activation of peripheral and / or central IO&NS pathways may explain the co-occurrence of depression with the above disorders. This shows that depression belongs to the spectrum of inflammatory and degenerative disorders. ©2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters.


Maes M.,Maes Clinics at TRIA | Kubera M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Mihaylova I.,Foundation of Biological Psychiatry | Geffard M.,Association Institute for Research and Development in Human Pathology and Therapy | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Objective: There is evidence that major depression is characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS). The aim of this study is to examine IgM-mediated autoimmune responses against a variety of modified neo-epitopes formed by O&NS damage to self-epitopes in chronic depression. Methods: Serum IgM antibodies directed against conjugated oleic and azelaic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphatidyl inositol (Pi), and conjugated nitric-oxide (NO) adducts, i.e., NO-tryptophan, NO-tyrosine, NO-arginine, and NO-cysteinyl, were determined in 33 healthy controls and 74 depressed patients subdivided into 28 patients with chronic (duration >2 year) and 46 without chronic depression. Results: Serum IgM levels against all neoepitopes were significantly higher in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, the IgM levels were significantly higher, except Pi, in chronically depressed patients than in non-chronically depressed patients. Conclusions: Depression is characterized by IgM-related autoimmune responses directed against neo-epitopes that are normally hidden from the immune system but that became immunogenic secondary to damage by O&NS. The results show that the generation of neoantigenic determinants that lead to (auto)immune responses is strongly associated with chronic depression. Discussion: The damage caused by O&NS to auto-epitopes and the consequent formation of O&NS modified neoantigenic determinants may increase the risk to develop depression and in particular chronic depression through transition to autoimmune reactions. This has implications for understanding the immuno-inflammatory and oxidative-autoimmune pathways that lead to chronic depression and neuroprogression in that illness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


The tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is induced by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which upon activation depletes plasma tryptophan (TRP) and increases the synthesis of TRYCATs. Both phenomena are associated with somatization and depression. The aims of this study are to examine whether disorders in the TRYCAT pathway are specific to depression or somatization and whether the diagnoses somatization, depression, and comorbid depression. +. somatization reflect qualitatively distinct clinical and biological categories. Plasma TRP, the kynurenine (KY)/TRP and KY/kynurenic acid (KA) ratios were measured in 36 patients with somatization, 35 depressed and 38 depressed. +. somatization patients and 22 controls. Using pattern recognition methods, the diagnosis comorbid depression. +. somatization could not be validated, while there was an important overlap between depression and somatization, which form one continuum. Cluster analysis detected a) a control cluster; b) a cluster with lower tryptophan, and higher KY/TRP and KY/KA ratios and somatization scores; and c) a cluster with increased depression but lower KY/TRP values. The differences between both patient clusters were quantitative and not qualitative. Within the patient group, cluster analysis has generated a "pathway phenotype", i.e. aberrations in the TRYCAT pathway, which are associated with somatization rather than with depression. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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