Madurai Medical College

Madurai, India

Madurai Medical College

Madurai, India

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Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College | Muthukumar N.,Devadoss Multispeciality Hospitals
Neurology India | Year: 2012

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is emerging as the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in the elderly worldwide. In the past decade, our understanding of the biomechanics of the spine has improved along with advances in spinal instrumentation and this has led to significant changes in the surgical management of CSM. This review will discuss the indications, advantages and limitations of different operative approaches as well as the complications and prognosis of surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Choice of surgical approach for CSM should be based on the clinical and radiological characteristics of the individual patient and not on the preferences of the surgeon.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2015

Spondylocostal dysostosis, also known as Jarcho-Levine syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by multiple vertebral and rib anomalies at birth. The association of occult spinal dysraphic lesions with this entity is rare. Two patients with spondylocostal dysostosis and occult spinal dysraphic lesions, one with type I split cord malformation and another with spinal dermal sinus are being reported. A 7-month-old female child who was operated at birth for imperforate anus was noted to have a dimple at the low back with altered skin color around the dimple. Examination revealed the right lower extremity was slightly thinner than the left. Plain radiographs showed features of spondylocostal dysostosis with scoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a type I split cord malformation at the lumbosacral junction with low-lying conus and terminal syringomyelia. Patient underwent excision of the bony spur uneventfully. A 14-month-old male child was noted to have a small swelling in the low back along with deformity of the right lower chest since birth. Plain radiographs revealed features of spondylocostal dysostosis. MRI showed a spinal dermal sinus at the lumbosacral junction with a low-lying conus. The patient underwent excision of the spinal dermal sinus and untethering of the cord uneventfully. Although rare, spondylocostal dysostosis can be associated with occult spinal dysraphic lesions like type I split cord malformations or spinal dermal sinus. Physicians should be aware about the possibility of children with spondylocostal dysostosis harboring occult spinal dysraphic lesions so that these patients receive appropriate treatment.


Sadasivam S.,Madurai Medical College
Medico-Legal Update | Year: 2016

Background: Head injury is an important cause of mortality worldwide, as the head is the most vulnerable part of the body which is involved in fatal road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident is the leading cause of serious injuries with associated head trauma especially in youth and middle age persons. Head injury is the most common cause of mortality and major health problem all over the world The Incidence of RTAs was higher in males and in 3rd to 4th decade of life owing to increase risk exposure to males due to more outdoor activities Objective: To study the pattern of fatal head injury in the victims of road traffic accidents. Results: 950 people died in road traffic accidents due to head injuries in the study period. Skull fracture were present in 49.58% of the cases. Fractures of the vault were found in 56% and those of the base of the skull were found in 14.2% of the cases. Fissured fractures were found (89%)in a maximum number of cases, followed by depressed(8.3%)and communited (2.7%)fractures. Among intracranial haemorrhages, subarachnoid haemorrhage was found in90.8%,extradural in 3.4% and subdural haemorrage in 80.5% of the cases. Contusions and laceration of brain were found in 38.1% and 29.7% victims respectively. Cerebellar involved in seen in 0.42% of victims. © 2016, World Informations Syndicate. All rights reserved.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2016

Objective: Proatlas segementation anomalies are due to defective re-segmentation of the proatlas sclerotome. These anomalies of the craniovertebral junction are rare and have multiple presentations. The aim of this study is to report this author's personal experience in managing five of these patients with different radiological findings necessitating different surgical strategies and to provide a brief review of the relevant literature. Materials and Methods: Five patients, all in the second decade of life were treated between 2010 and 2013. There were three males and two females. All the patients presented with spastic quadriparesis and/or cerebellar signs. Patients underwent plain radiographs, MRI and CT of the craniovertebral junction. CT of the cranioveretebral junction was the key to the diagnosis of this anomaly. Postoperatively, patients were assessed with plain radiographs and CT in all patients and MRI in one. Results: Two patients underwent craniovertebral realignment with occipitocervical fixation, two patients underwent C1-C2 fixation using Goel-Harms technique and one patient underwent craniovertebral realignment with C1-C2 fixation using spacers in the atlanatoaxial joint and foramen magnum decompression. All patients improved during follow up. Conclusions: Proatlas segmentation defects are rare anomalies of the craniovertebral junction. Routine use of thin section CT of the craniovertebral junction and an awareness of this entity and its multivarious presentations are necessary for clinicians dealing with abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction. © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Growing skull fractures are rare complications of head injury in young children. Till date, growing skull fractures due to an underlying arrested hydrocephalus or subdural hygroma have not been reported. We are reporting two such rare cases. Discussion: A 12-year-old male who was a known case of arrested hydrocephalus sustained a mild head injury and was found to have a linear fracture. One month after the initial injury, a soft swelling was noted in the parietal region. Investigations revealed the dilated ventricular system communicating through a growing skull fracture with a subgaleal CSF collection. The patient underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt using a high-pressure shunt system. The patient died suddenly 48 h after the surgery. An 8-month-old female child sustained a mild head injury with a linear fracture in the parieto-occipital region. Two months later, the child presented with seizures and a soft, fluctuant swelling in the parieto-occipital region. Imaging revealed a frontoparietal subdural hygroma with mass effect that was communicating through a growing skull fracture with a subgaleal CSF collection. The patient underwent a subduroperitoneal shunt. The shunt tube was removed 3 months later as it protruded through the abdominal wound. Follow-up imaging studies revealed complete resolution of the subdural hygroma with healing of the growing skull fracture. Conclusions: Growing skull fractures can occur as complications of mild head injury sustained in the setting of either arrested hydrocephalus or subdural hygroma. Hence, close follow-up of patients with skull fracture and arrested hydrocephalus/subdural hygroma is necessary for early diagnosis of growing skull fractures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Dorsal cutaneous appendages, sometimes referred to as "human tails," are considered to be markers of underlying occult spinal dysraphism. Rarely, these tail-like structures can themselves be the cause of tethered cord syndrome. However, to date, a "bony human tail" causing tethered cord has not been reported in the literature. One such rare lesion is being reported. Discussion: A 2-days-old female child was brought for neurosurgical consultation with a skin-covered bony protuberance in the lower back. Examination of the child did not reveal any neurological deficits. Plain radiographic and CT evaluation showed a dorsal bony protuberance arising from the posterior elements of L1 vertebra. MRI showed the cord to be displaced posteriorly and adherent to the undersurface of the bony tail through a lipoma. During surgery, the bony "tail" was excised, and the cord was untethered with excision of the lipoma, which was tethering the cord to the bony "tail." When examined 1 year later, the child was developing normally without any focal neurological deficits. Conclusions: This case is being reported for its rarity and to highlight the hitherto unreported occurrence of "bony human tail" causing tethered cord syndrome. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Acta Neurochirurgica | Year: 2013

Background: Transfacet screw fixation is a biomechanically effective way of fusing the subaxial cervical spine. The technique used by this author is described. Methods: With the patient in prone position, a conventional posterior exposure of the cervical spine is done. The entry point used by this author is 2 mm above the middle of the lateral mass without any lateral angulation. Under fluoroscopic guidance the facet is drilled until all the four cortical surfaces are purchased. Then the depth is measured to assess the length of the screw required. This is followed by tapping and screw insertion both of which are done under fluoroscopic control. All screws are placed prior to laminectomy to decompress the cervical cord. Conclusions: This is a simple, inexpensive and biomechanically effective way of stabilizing the subaxial cervical spine. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine | Year: 2012

Hangman's fractures, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis, can be managed either conservatively with immobilization or by surgery. Surgery is usually indicated in cases with instability or failure of conservative treatment. Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman's fracture. We report two patients, one with type IIa and another with type III Hangman's fracture treated with C1-C3 lateral mass fusion and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique when compared to other techniques for fusion in patients with Hangman's fracture.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine | Year: 2012

The pathogenesis of syringomyelia continues to be an enigma. The patency of the central canal and its role in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia continues to elicit controversy. The case reported here provides an opportunity to retest some of the hypotheses of syringomyelia. A 33 year old female presented with sensory disturbances over the left upper extremity and trunk and was diagnosed to have panventriculomegaly with communicating syringomyelia. She was initially treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. As there was no change in her neurological status following shunt, this was followed by foramen magnum decompression with excision of an arachnoid veil covering the fourth ventricular outlet. She had clinical and radiological improvement after foramen magnum decompression. Five months later she had reappearance of the symptoms of syringomyelia and was found to have shunt dysfunction and holocord syrinx. She improved following shunt revision. This case is being reported to highlight the following points: 1. In patients with communicating syringomyelia and hydrocephalus, shunt dysfunction can present with symptoms of syringomyelia without the classical clinical features of shunt dysfunction, 2. In patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord acts as an «exhaust valve» for the ventricular system, and, 3. studies about the patency of the central canal are reviewed in the context of this case and the role of the central canal in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia is reviewed.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society | Year: 2014

The synchondrosis between the dens and the body of axis normally fuses between 5 and 7 years of age. Until this age, synchondrosis fractures can occur in children. Most synchondrosis fractures are conventionally treated by external immobilization alone. We report a 10-year-old child with odontoid synchondrosis fracture who was treated by C1 lateral mass and C2 pars screw rod fixation with a successful outcome and discuss the possible reasons for occurrence of odontoid synchondrosis fracture in this older child as well as the indications for surgery in this condition. © 2014 The Korean Neurosurgical Society.

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