Madurai Medical College

Madurai, India

Madurai Medical College

Madurai, India
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Abdul Hasan Sathali A.,Madurai Medical College | Rajalakshmi G.,SRM University
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2010

The objective of present study is to develop a targeted delivery to the fungal affected cells. Niosomes of terbinafine hydrochloride were formulated by thin film hydration method using different ratios of non ionic surfactant (tween 20, 40, 60, and 80) and cholesterol with constant drug concentration. The prepared formulations were evaluated for its vesicle size (by AFM), entrapment efficiency (by dialysis method) in vitro release studies and antifungal activities. Increase in surfactant concentration, increased the entrapment efficiency (up to 84.92%) and the formulation with surfactant cholesterol ratio 2:1 in each group of surfactant showed good entrapment. Niosomal preparation were tested for in vitro antifungal activity using the strain Aspergillus niger and compared with pure drug solution (as standard). All the niosomal formulations showed gradual increase in zone of inhibition due to the controlled release of medicament. The best formulation with maximum zone of inhibition and sustained release of drug (tween 40 nisomes) incorporated into gel bases and evaluated. The studies revealed that gel containing total niosomes possess maximum zone of inhibition values (12mm) initially followed by sustained release (12mm-16mm) comparing to gel containing drug entrapped niosomes, gel containing pure drug and marketed preparation.


Ekambaram P.,Madurai Medical College | Abdul Hasan Sathali A.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2011

Solid lipid nanoparticles are typically spherical with an average diameter between 1 and 1000 nm. It is an alternative carrier system to tradition colloidal carriers, such as, emulsions, liposomes, and polymeric micro and nanoparticles. Ramipril is an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of hypertension. Its oral bioavailability is 28% and it is rapidly excreted through the renal route. This drug has many side effects such as, postural hypotension, hyperkalemia, and angioedema, when given as an immediate dosage form. To overcome the side effects and to increase the bioavailability of ramipril, solid lipid nanoparticles of ramipril are prepared by using lipids (glyceryl monostearate and glyceryl monooleate) with stabilizers (tween 80, poloxamer 188, and span 20). The prepared formulations have been evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content, in-vitro drug release, particle size analysis, scanning electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared studies, and stability. A formulation containing glyceryl monooleate, stabilized with span 20 as surfactant showed prolonged drug release, smaller particle size, and narrow particle size distribution, as compared to other formulations with different surfactants and lipids.


Priyanka K.,Madurai Medical College | Abdul Hasan Sathali A.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2012

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are an alternative carrier system used to load the drug for targeting, to improve the bioavailability by increasing its solubility, and protecting the drug from presystemic metabolism. The avoidance of presystemic metabolism is due to the nano-metric size range, so that the liver cannot uptake the drug from the delivery system and is not metabolized by the liver. Montelukast sodium is an anti-asthmatic drug, because of its poor oral bioavailability, presystemic metabolism, and decreased half-life; it was chosen to formulate as the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) system by hot homogenization followed by an ultrasonication method, to overcome the above. Compritol ATO 888, stearic acid, and glyceryl monostearate were used as a lipid matrix and polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. The prepared formulations have been evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content, in vitro drug release, particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared studies (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and stability. Particle size analysis revealed that the SLN prepared from the higher melting point lipid showed a larger particle size and with increased carbon chain length of the fatty acids. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was ranging from 42% to 92%. In vitro release studies showed maximum cumulative drug release was obtained for F 1 (59.1%) containing stearic acid, and the lowest was observed for F 18 (28.1%) containing compritol ATO 888 after 12 h and all the formulations followed first-order release kinetics. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed no interaction between drug and lipids. Studies showed that increase in lipid concentration, increased particle size, EE, and maintained the sustained release of drug. Among all, compritol ATO 888 was chosen as the best lipid for formulating SLN because it had high EE and sustained the drug release.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College | Muthukumar N.,Devadoss Multispeciality Hospitals
Neurology India | Year: 2012

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is emerging as the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in the elderly worldwide. In the past decade, our understanding of the biomechanics of the spine has improved along with advances in spinal instrumentation and this has led to significant changes in the surgical management of CSM. This review will discuss the indications, advantages and limitations of different operative approaches as well as the complications and prognosis of surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Choice of surgical approach for CSM should be based on the clinical and radiological characteristics of the individual patient and not on the preferences of the surgeon.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2016

Objective: Proatlas segementation anomalies are due to defective re-segmentation of the proatlas sclerotome. These anomalies of the craniovertebral junction are rare and have multiple presentations. The aim of this study is to report this author's personal experience in managing five of these patients with different radiological findings necessitating different surgical strategies and to provide a brief review of the relevant literature. Materials and Methods: Five patients, all in the second decade of life were treated between 2010 and 2013. There were three males and two females. All the patients presented with spastic quadriparesis and/or cerebellar signs. Patients underwent plain radiographs, MRI and CT of the craniovertebral junction. CT of the cranioveretebral junction was the key to the diagnosis of this anomaly. Postoperatively, patients were assessed with plain radiographs and CT in all patients and MRI in one. Results: Two patients underwent craniovertebral realignment with occipitocervical fixation, two patients underwent C1-C2 fixation using Goel-Harms technique and one patient underwent craniovertebral realignment with C1-C2 fixation using spacers in the atlanatoaxial joint and foramen magnum decompression. All patients improved during follow up. Conclusions: Proatlas segmentation defects are rare anomalies of the craniovertebral junction. Routine use of thin section CT of the craniovertebral junction and an awareness of this entity and its multivarious presentations are necessary for clinicians dealing with abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction. © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Growing skull fractures are rare complications of head injury in young children. Till date, growing skull fractures due to an underlying arrested hydrocephalus or subdural hygroma have not been reported. We are reporting two such rare cases. Discussion: A 12-year-old male who was a known case of arrested hydrocephalus sustained a mild head injury and was found to have a linear fracture. One month after the initial injury, a soft swelling was noted in the parietal region. Investigations revealed the dilated ventricular system communicating through a growing skull fracture with a subgaleal CSF collection. The patient underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt using a high-pressure shunt system. The patient died suddenly 48 h after the surgery. An 8-month-old female child sustained a mild head injury with a linear fracture in the parieto-occipital region. Two months later, the child presented with seizures and a soft, fluctuant swelling in the parieto-occipital region. Imaging revealed a frontoparietal subdural hygroma with mass effect that was communicating through a growing skull fracture with a subgaleal CSF collection. The patient underwent a subduroperitoneal shunt. The shunt tube was removed 3 months later as it protruded through the abdominal wound. Follow-up imaging studies revealed complete resolution of the subdural hygroma with healing of the growing skull fracture. Conclusions: Growing skull fractures can occur as complications of mild head injury sustained in the setting of either arrested hydrocephalus or subdural hygroma. Hence, close follow-up of patients with skull fracture and arrested hydrocephalus/subdural hygroma is necessary for early diagnosis of growing skull fractures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Dorsal cutaneous appendages, sometimes referred to as "human tails," are considered to be markers of underlying occult spinal dysraphism. Rarely, these tail-like structures can themselves be the cause of tethered cord syndrome. However, to date, a "bony human tail" causing tethered cord has not been reported in the literature. One such rare lesion is being reported. Discussion: A 2-days-old female child was brought for neurosurgical consultation with a skin-covered bony protuberance in the lower back. Examination of the child did not reveal any neurological deficits. Plain radiographic and CT evaluation showed a dorsal bony protuberance arising from the posterior elements of L1 vertebra. MRI showed the cord to be displaced posteriorly and adherent to the undersurface of the bony tail through a lipoma. During surgery, the bony "tail" was excised, and the cord was untethered with excision of the lipoma, which was tethering the cord to the bony "tail." When examined 1 year later, the child was developing normally without any focal neurological deficits. Conclusions: This case is being reported for its rarity and to highlight the hitherto unreported occurrence of "bony human tail" causing tethered cord syndrome. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Acta Neurochirurgica | Year: 2013

Background: Transfacet screw fixation is a biomechanically effective way of fusing the subaxial cervical spine. The technique used by this author is described. Methods: With the patient in prone position, a conventional posterior exposure of the cervical spine is done. The entry point used by this author is 2 mm above the middle of the lateral mass without any lateral angulation. Under fluoroscopic guidance the facet is drilled until all the four cortical surfaces are purchased. Then the depth is measured to assess the length of the screw required. This is followed by tapping and screw insertion both of which are done under fluoroscopic control. All screws are placed prior to laminectomy to decompress the cervical cord. Conclusions: This is a simple, inexpensive and biomechanically effective way of stabilizing the subaxial cervical spine. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine | Year: 2012

Hangman's fractures, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis, can be managed either conservatively with immobilization or by surgery. Surgery is usually indicated in cases with instability or failure of conservative treatment. Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman's fracture. We report two patients, one with type IIa and another with type III Hangman's fracture treated with C1-C3 lateral mass fusion and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique when compared to other techniques for fusion in patients with Hangman's fracture.


Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine | Year: 2012

The pathogenesis of syringomyelia continues to be an enigma. The patency of the central canal and its role in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia continues to elicit controversy. The case reported here provides an opportunity to retest some of the hypotheses of syringomyelia. A 33 year old female presented with sensory disturbances over the left upper extremity and trunk and was diagnosed to have panventriculomegaly with communicating syringomyelia. She was initially treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. As there was no change in her neurological status following shunt, this was followed by foramen magnum decompression with excision of an arachnoid veil covering the fourth ventricular outlet. She had clinical and radiological improvement after foramen magnum decompression. Five months later she had reappearance of the symptoms of syringomyelia and was found to have shunt dysfunction and holocord syrinx. She improved following shunt revision. This case is being reported to highlight the following points: 1. In patients with communicating syringomyelia and hydrocephalus, shunt dysfunction can present with symptoms of syringomyelia without the classical clinical features of shunt dysfunction, 2. In patients with communicating syringomyelia, the central canal of the spinal cord acts as an «exhaust valve» for the ventricular system, and, 3. studies about the patency of the central canal are reviewed in the context of this case and the role of the central canal in the pathogenesis of communicating syringomyelia is reviewed.

Loading Madurai Medical College collaborators
Loading Madurai Medical College collaborators