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Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2016

Objective: Proatlas segementation anomalies are due to defective re-segmentation of the proatlas sclerotome. These anomalies of the craniovertebral junction are rare and have multiple presentations. The aim of this study is to report this author's personal experience in managing five of these patients with different radiological findings necessitating different surgical strategies and to provide a brief review of the relevant literature. Materials and Methods: Five patients, all in the second decade of life were treated between 2010 and 2013. There were three males and two females. All the patients presented with spastic quadriparesis and/or cerebellar signs. Patients underwent plain radiographs, MRI and CT of the craniovertebral junction. CT of the cranioveretebral junction was the key to the diagnosis of this anomaly. Postoperatively, patients were assessed with plain radiographs and CT in all patients and MRI in one. Results: Two patients underwent craniovertebral realignment with occipitocervical fixation, two patients underwent C1-C2 fixation using Goel-Harms technique and one patient underwent craniovertebral realignment with C1-C2 fixation using spacers in the atlanatoaxial joint and foramen magnum decompression. All patients improved during follow up. Conclusions: Proatlas segmentation defects are rare anomalies of the craniovertebral junction. Routine use of thin section CT of the craniovertebral junction and an awareness of this entity and its multivarious presentations are necessary for clinicians dealing with abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction. © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences.

Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences | Year: 2015

Spondylocostal dysostosis, also known as Jarcho-Levine syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by multiple vertebral and rib anomalies at birth. The association of occult spinal dysraphic lesions with this entity is rare. Two patients with spondylocostal dysostosis and occult spinal dysraphic lesions, one with type I split cord malformation and another with spinal dermal sinus are being reported. A 7-month-old female child who was operated at birth for imperforate anus was noted to have a dimple at the low back with altered skin color around the dimple. Examination revealed the right lower extremity was slightly thinner than the left. Plain radiographs showed features of spondylocostal dysostosis with scoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a type I split cord malformation at the lumbosacral junction with low-lying conus and terminal syringomyelia. Patient underwent excision of the bony spur uneventfully. A 14-month-old male child was noted to have a small swelling in the low back along with deformity of the right lower chest since birth. Plain radiographs revealed features of spondylocostal dysostosis. MRI showed a spinal dermal sinus at the lumbosacral junction with a low-lying conus. The patient underwent excision of the spinal dermal sinus and untethering of the cord uneventfully. Although rare, spondylocostal dysostosis can be associated with occult spinal dysraphic lesions like type I split cord malformations or spinal dermal sinus. Physicians should be aware about the possibility of children with spondylocostal dysostosis harboring occult spinal dysraphic lesions so that these patients receive appropriate treatment.

Athappan G.,Caritas St Elizabeth Medical Center | Ponniah T.,Madurai Medical College | Jeyaseelan L.,Christian Medical College
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine | Year: 2010

AIM: Percutaneous intervention of true coronary bifurcation lesions is challenging. Based on the results of randomized trials and registry data, the approach of stenting of main vessel only with balloon dilatation of the side branch has become the default approach for false bifurcation lesions except when a complication occurs or in cases of suboptimal result. However, the optimal stenting strategy for true coronary bifurcation lesions - to stent or not to stent the side branch - is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to compare the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the double stent technique (stenting of the main branch and side branch) over the single stent technique (stenting of main vessel only with balloon dilatation of the side branch) for treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions, with drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS: Comparative studies published between January 2000 and February 2009 of the double stent technique vs. single stent technique with DES for true coronary bifurcations were identified using an electronic search and reviewed using a random effects model. The primary endpoints of our study were side-branch and main-branch restenoses, all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at longest available follow-up. The secondary endpoints of our analysis were postprocedural minimal luminal diameter (MLD) of the side branch and main branch, follow-up MLD of side branch and main branch and stent thrombosis. Heterogeneity was assessed and sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the overall summary odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Five studies comprising 1145 patients (616 single stent and 529 double stent) were included in the analysis. Three studies were randomized comparisons between the two techniques for true coronary bifurcation lesions. Incomplete reporting of data in the primary studies was common. The lengths of clinical and angiographic follow-up ranged between 6 and 12 months and 6 and 7 months, respectively. Postprocedural MLD of the side branch was significantly smaller in the single stent group [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.71, 95% CI -0.88 to -0.54, P < 0.000, I2 = 0%]. The odds of side-branch restenosis (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.47-2.67, P = 0.81, I2 = 76%), main-branch restenois (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.56-1.39, P = 0.58, I2 = 0%), all-cause mortality (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.11-2.45, P = 0.41, I2 = 0%), MI (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.34-2.54, P = 0.87, I2 = 49%) and TLR (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.46-1.65, P = 0.68, I2 = 0%) were similar between the two groups. Postprocedural MLD of the main branch [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.08, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.26, P < 0.65, I2 = 67%], follow-up MLD of side branch (SMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.01, P < 0.31, I2 = 15%) and main branch MLD (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.542, P < 0.35, I2 = 65%) were also similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for true coronary bifurcations, there is no added advantage of stenting both branches as compared with a conventional one-stent strategy. The results, however, need to be interpreted considering the poor study methods and/or poor quality of reporting in publications. We propose to move forward and consider the conduct of more systematic, well-designed and scientific trials to investigate the treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions. © 2010 Italian Federation of Cardiology.

Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Dorsal cutaneous appendages, sometimes referred to as "human tails," are considered to be markers of underlying occult spinal dysraphism. Rarely, these tail-like structures can themselves be the cause of tethered cord syndrome. However, to date, a "bony human tail" causing tethered cord has not been reported in the literature. One such rare lesion is being reported. Discussion: A 2-days-old female child was brought for neurosurgical consultation with a skin-covered bony protuberance in the lower back. Examination of the child did not reveal any neurological deficits. Plain radiographic and CT evaluation showed a dorsal bony protuberance arising from the posterior elements of L1 vertebra. MRI showed the cord to be displaced posteriorly and adherent to the undersurface of the bony tail through a lipoma. During surgery, the bony "tail" was excised, and the cord was untethered with excision of the lipoma, which was tethering the cord to the bony "tail." When examined 1 year later, the child was developing normally without any focal neurological deficits. Conclusions: This case is being reported for its rarity and to highlight the hitherto unreported occurrence of "bony human tail" causing tethered cord syndrome. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Muthukumar N.,Madurai Medical College
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2014

Introduction: Growing skull fractures are rare complications of head injury in young children. Till date, growing skull fractures due to an underlying arrested hydrocephalus or subdural hygroma have not been reported. We are reporting two such rare cases. Discussion: A 12-year-old male who was a known case of arrested hydrocephalus sustained a mild head injury and was found to have a linear fracture. One month after the initial injury, a soft swelling was noted in the parietal region. Investigations revealed the dilated ventricular system communicating through a growing skull fracture with a subgaleal CSF collection. The patient underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt using a high-pressure shunt system. The patient died suddenly 48 h after the surgery. An 8-month-old female child sustained a mild head injury with a linear fracture in the parieto-occipital region. Two months later, the child presented with seizures and a soft, fluctuant swelling in the parieto-occipital region. Imaging revealed a frontoparietal subdural hygroma with mass effect that was communicating through a growing skull fracture with a subgaleal CSF collection. The patient underwent a subduroperitoneal shunt. The shunt tube was removed 3 months later as it protruded through the abdominal wound. Follow-up imaging studies revealed complete resolution of the subdural hygroma with healing of the growing skull fracture. Conclusions: Growing skull fractures can occur as complications of mild head injury sustained in the setting of either arrested hydrocephalus or subdural hygroma. Hence, close follow-up of patients with skull fracture and arrested hydrocephalus/subdural hygroma is necessary for early diagnosis of growing skull fractures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

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