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Garcia-Esquinas E.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Garcia-Esquinas E.,CIBER ISCIII | Aragones N.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Aragones N.,CIBER ISCIII | And 24 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

This study is part of the BioMadrid Project, a bio-monitoring study designed to assess pollutants in the environment surrounding children born in the Madrid region. Our aim in this report is to evaluate the association between prenatal lead exposure and fetal development using three biological samples (maternal and paternal blood lead at around 34 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood lead levels), three biomarkers of effect in cord blood peripheral lymphocytes (micronucleus in binucleated cells, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds), and different anthropometrical characteristics at birth. Maternal and cord blood lead were not associated with newborn measurements or genotoxicity biomarkers. In contrast, increases in father blood lead were coupled with lower weight (mean difference (MD), -110.8 g; 95 % confidence intervals (95%CI), -235.6 to 6.00; p < 0.10) and shorter abdominal (MD, -0.81 cm; 95%CI, -1.64 to 0.00; p < 0.05) and cephalic (MD, -0.32 cm; 95%CI, -0.65 to 0.00; p < 0.05) circumferences at birth as well as with the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (odds ratio, 1.03; 95%CI, 1.00 to 1.06; p < 0.05) and nuclear buds (odds ratio, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.99 to 1.04; p < 0.10). These associations were mainly confined to female babies, in whom paternal lead was also inversely associated with length. Our results support the hypothesis that paternal lead exposure may be affecting the development of newborns. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Garcia-Esquinas E.,Carlos III Institute of Health ISCIII | Garcia-Esquinas E.,CIBER ISCIII | Perez-Gomez B.,Carlos III Institute of Health ISCIII | Perez-Gomez B.,CIBER ISCIII | And 23 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Background: Although breastfeeding is the ideal way of nurturing infants, it can be a source of exposure to toxicants. This study reports the concentration of Hg, Pb and Cd in breast milk from a sample of women drawn from the general population of the Madrid Region, and explores the association between metal levels and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits, diet and environmental exposures, including tobacco smoke, exposure at home and occupational exposures. Methods: Breast milk was obtained from 100 women (20. mL) at around the third week postpartum. Pb, Cd and Hg levels were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Metal levels were log-transformed due to non-normal distribution. Their association with the variables collected by questionnaire was assessed using linear regression models. Separate models were fitted for Hg, Pb and Cd, using univariate linear regression in a first step. Secondly, multivariate linear regression models were adjusted introducing potential confounders specific for each metal. Finally, a test for trend was performed in order to evaluate possible dose-response relationships between metal levels and changes in variables categories. Results: Geometric mean Hg, Pb and Cd content in milk were 0.53μgL -1, 15.56μgL -1, and 1.31μgL -1, respectively. Decreases in Hg levels in older women and in those with a previous history of pregnancies and lactations suggested clearance of this metal over lifetime, though differences were not statistically significant, probably due to limited sample size. Lead concentrations increased with greater exposure to motor vehicle traffic and higher potato consumption. Increased Cd levels were associated with type of lactation and tended to increase with tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Surveillance for the presence of heavy metals in human milk is needed. Smoking and dietary habits are the main factors linked to heavy metal levels in breast milk. Our results reinforce the need to strengthen national food safety programs and to further promote avoidance of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking during pregnancy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Garcia-Esquinas E.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Garcia-Esquinas E.,Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health | Garcia-Esquinas E.,Johns Hopkins University | Perez-Gomez B.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | And 24 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: In Spain, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure to heavy metals. The objective of this study was to describe lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in blood from a sample of newborn-mother-father trios, as well as to investigate the association between metals in cord blood and parental variables. We also explored the relationship between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth. Methods. Metal correlations among family members were assessed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parental variables and log-transformed cord blood lead and cord blood mercury concentrations. In the case of cadmium, tobit regression was used due to the existence of samples below the detection limit. The association between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth was evaluated using linear regression. Results: Geometric means for lead, mercury and cadmium were 14.09 μg/L, 6.72 μg/L and 0.27 μg/L in newborns; 19.80 μg/L, 3.90 μg/L and 0.53 μg/L in pregnant women; and 33.00 μg/L, 5.38 μg/L and 0.49 μg/L in men. Positive correlations were found between metal concentrations among members of the trio. Lead and cadmium concentrations were 15% and 22% higher in newborns from mothers who smoked during pregnancy, while mercury concentrations were 25% higher in newborns from mothers with greater fish intake. Cord-blood lead levels showed seasonal periodicity, with lower concentrations observed in winter. Cord blood cadmium concentrations over 0.29 μg/L were associated with lower 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Conclusions: These results reinforce the need to establish biomonitoring programs in Spain, and provide support for tobacco smoke and fish consumption as important preventable sources of heavy metal exposure in newborns. Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure might be deleterious to fetal development. © 2013 García-Esquinas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lope Carvajal V.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Lope Carvajal V.,CIBER ISCIII | Pollan M.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Pollan M.,CIBER ISCIII | And 21 more authors.
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis | Year: 2010

Monitoring cytogenetic damage is frequently used to assess population exposure to environmental mutagens. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay is one of the most widely used methods employed in these studies. In the present study we used this assay to assess the baseline frequency of micronuclei in a healthy population of father-pregnant woman-new-born trios drawn from two Madrid areas. We also investigated the association between micronucleus frequency and specific socioeconomic, environmental, and demographic factors collected by questionnaire. Mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium blood levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The association between micronucleated cell frequency and the variables collected by questionnaire, as well as, the risk associated with the presence of elevated levels of metals in blood, was estimated using Poisson models, taking the number of micronucleated cells in 1,000 binucleated cells (MNBCs) as the dependent variable. Separate analyses were conducted for the 110 newborns, 136 pregnant women, and 134 fathers in whom micronuclei could be assessed. The mean number of micronucleated cells per 1,000 binucleated cells was 3.9, 6.5, and 6.1 respectively. Our results show a statistically significant correlation in MNBC frequency between fathers and mothers, and between parents and newborns. Elevated blood mercury levels in fathers were associated with significantly higher MNBC frequency, compared with fathers who had normal mercury levels (RR:1.21; 95%CI:1.02-1.43). This last result suggests the need to implement greater control over populations which, by reason of their occupation or life style, are among those most exposed to this metal. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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