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Arnaiz-Villena A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Areces C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Enriquez-de-Salamanca M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil S.,Madrid Regional Blood Center | And 4 more authors.
Immunological Investigations | Year: 2014

HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 alleles have been studied in a Mixtec Mexican Amerindian population by indirect DNA sequencing. HLA relatedness has been tested by comparing results with other Amerindians and worldwide populations; a total of 15,681 chromosomes have been used. Genetic distances between populations, Neighbour Joining (NJ) dendrograms and correspondence analyses have been carried out. Conclusions are: 1) Our Mixtec sample from Oaxaca Coastal Mexican area shows an HLA profile different to that of Oaxaca Central Mountains area showing that genes and languages do not correlate which is inferred both by plane genetic distances and NJ dendrograms and correspondence analyses. 2) Genetic distances and NJ dendrograms join together Mazatecan Mexican Amerindians with our studied Coastal Mixtec group; it fits with the historical relationship between Mixtec and Mazatecans. 3) A∗24:02-B∗35:14-DRB1∗04:11, A∗02:01-B∗15:15-DRB1∗04:11 and A∗68:03-B∗39:08-DRB1∗08:02 extended HLA haplotypes have been "de novo" found in our Mixtec Coastal sample. 4) Shared HLA alleles are found between our Pacific Coast Mixtec Amerindians and Pacific Islanders. 5) These results are useful for establishing a future area transplantation waiting list, for the study of HLA linked diseases epidemiology and for pharmacogenomics in certain drug therapy. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Arnaiz-Villena A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Honrado M.,Madrid Regional Blood Center | Areces C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Enriquez-De-Salamanca M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

Obesity is for many scholars the most important starting status that gives rise to Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). In the present paper, a genetically homogeneous Amerindian population, as defined by HLA genes, has been genotyped for one of the MS and T2D predisposing genes: PPAR-γ Ala12 and Pro 12 variants. Ala12 has been negatively associated with obesity, but other authors do not find such an association. Notwithstanding, a meta-analysis that used many subjects clearly demonstrated that PPAR-γ Ala12 bearing ones had a reduced risk for T2D. Our results show that Amerindians do not have association of PPAR-γ2 Ala12 and obesity; the latter was measured by waist circumference values after taken specific Amerindian normal waist parameters. Also, a population genetics study indicates that Pro12 allele was the wild allele, which must have occurred before modern humans left Africa. Ala12 may have appeared in Caucasoids later on, according to our comparisons. Negroids tend to show low or null Ala 12 allele frequencies, while most other populations have a significant frequency, particularly European Caucasoids. This may suggest that appearance of Ala12 allele occurred after populations adapted to an agricultural feeding. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Arnaiz-Villena A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Honrado M.,Madrid Regional Blood Center | Rey D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Enriquez-De-Salamanca M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

Adiponectin gene polymorphisms SNP45 and SNP276 have been related to metabolic syndrome (MS) and related pathologies, including obesity. However results of associations are contradictory depending on which population is studied. In the present study, these adiponectin SNPs are for the first time studied in Amerindians. Allele frequencies are obtained and comparison with obesity and other MS related parameters are performed. Amerindians were also defined by characteristic HLA genes. Our main results are: (1) SNP276 T is associated to low diastolic blood pressure in Amerindians, (2) SNP45 G allele is correlated with obesity in female but not in male Amerindians, (3) SNP45/SNP276 T/G haplotype in total obese/non-obese subjects tends to show a linkage with non-obese Amerindians, (4) SNP45/SNP276 T/T haplotype is linked to obese Amerindian males. Also, a world population study is carried out finding that SNP45 T and SNP276 T alleles are the most frequent in African Blacks and are found significantly in lower frequencies in Europeans and Asians. This together with the fact that there is a linkage of this haplotype to obese Amerindian males suggest that evolutionary forces related to famine (or population density in relation with available food) may have shaped world population adiponectin polymorphism frequencies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Rey D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Honrado M.,Madrid Regional Blood Center | Areces C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Algora M.,Madrid Regional Blood Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

PC-1 Gln121 gene is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance in European/American Caucasoids and Orientals. We have aimed to correlate for the first time this gene in Amerindians with obesity and their corresponding individuals genotypes with obesity in order to establish preventive medicine programs for this population and also studying the evolution of gene frequencies in world populations. Central obesity was diagnosed by waist circumference perimeter and food intake independent HDL-cholesterol plasma levels were measured. HLA genes were determined in order to more objectively ascertain participants Amerindians origin. 321 Amerindian blood donors who were healthy according to the blood doning parameters were studied. No association was found between PC-1 Gln121 variant and obesity. Significant HDL-cholesterol lower values were found in the PC-1 Lys121 bearing gene individuals versus PC-1 Gln121 bearing gene ones (45.1 ± 12.7 vs. 48.7 ± 15.2 mg/dl, p < 0.05). Population analyses showed a world geographical gradient in the PC-1 Gln121 allele frequency: around 9% in Orientals, 15% in European Caucasoids and 76% in Negroids. The conclusions are: (1) No association of PC-1 Gln121 gene is found with obesity in Amerindians when association is well established in Europeans. (2) PC-1 Gln121 gene is associated to higher levels of HDL-cholesterol than the alternative PC-1 Lys 121 allele. This may be specific for Amerindians. (3) Amerindians have an intermediate frequency of this possible PC-1 Gln121 thrifty gene when compared with Negroid African Americans (78.5%) or Han Chinese (7.5%, p < 0.0001). Historical details of African and other groups may support the hypothesis that PC-1 Gln 121 is indeed a thrifty gene. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Rey D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Areces C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alonso-Rubio J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Enriquez-de-Salamanca M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

HLA-A, -B, -DQB1, and -DRB1 typing has been performed in a sample of Georgian population (South Caucasus). Allele frequencies, neighbour joining and correspondence relatedness analyses and extended HLA haplotypes have been obtained with comparison with other Middle East andMediterranean populations.OurGeorgian sample tends to be genetically related in these analyses with Eastern Mediterraneans and Middle East people. This is important for future regional transplant programs, and Georgian HLA and disease epidemiology and pharmacogenomics.© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Arnaiz-Villena A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Abd-El-Fatah S.,Madrid Regional Blood Center | Granados-Silvestre M.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Parga-Lozano C.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 8 more authors.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers | Year: 2011

Background: The major histocompatibility complex genes are located on the short arm of the human sixth chromosome; they are highly polymorphic and therefore have been very advantageous in population genetic studies. Methods: A Mazahua group established in North Mexico State and also in nearby Michoacan state in the rainy mountain highlands (Mexico) was studied for their human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles. The relationship with other Amerindians and worldwide populations was studied by using 14, 996 chromosomes from 75 different populations and calculating neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence multidimensional values. Results: Five principal HLA allele frequencies were found in our group: DRB1*0802 (the most frequent one in this population), DRB1*0407, DRB1*0403, DRB1*0101, and DRB1*1406. Both genetic distances and correspondence analyses clearly show that our Mazahua group is genetically close to some of the most ancient groups living in Mexico (Mayos, Zapotecans, Tennek) and South American Amerindians. Amerindians remain as a group apart from the rest of the world. Conclusions: The results analyzing the HLA-DR locus suggest that Mazahua language (Otomangue) does not correlate with those of the most closely HLA-correlated ethnic groups. The present data may be useful for future transplantation programs, HLA and disease diagnosis, and pharmacogenetic studies. Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Parga-Lozano C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rey-Medrano D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gomez-Prieto P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Areces C.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2011

Amerindians immigrated to Madrid (Spain) region are about 10% of the present day population. Amerindians are believed to be the first American inhabitants, before Na-Dene speakers, Aleuts and Eskimo. They may initially have arrived to America from Siberia and also from other parts of Pacific Sea (South Asia, Polynesia and Australia). Nowadays, they populate America from Canada to Tierra del Fuego (South America tip South). Most Amerindian immigrants to Madrid have come from Andean Countries in the last 10 years (mainly Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia). They show an HLA profile with "quasi-specific alleles", which makes them different to the rest of the World. In the present work, we have aimed to determine the immigrants HLA profile in order to establish a virtual transplantation waiting list which may be useful for their therapeutic transplants, particularly bone marrow transplantation. This would be carried out together with Amerindian immigrants to other parts of Spain and with their own countries in order to build up transplantation programs. Specific epidemiology programs on HLA linked disease will also be established. Immigrant volunteer unrelated blood donors contributed to the present study. HLA typing was performed by standard methods and their HLA profile obtained and obtained and compared with 15,108 HLA chromosomes from the rest of the World, including Spaniards. The immigrants showed a typical Amerindian profile similar to isolated Amerindian ethnic groups and altogether different to other World inhabitants (including Spaniards). These are the first bases to set up transplantation and epidemiology studies in collaboration with their original population in America. Finally, the HLA profile found in these Amerindians does not indicate their American specific original area, as it is expected from previous studies, i.e.: they do not relate more with Andean than with other Amerindians in Neighbour Joining dendrograms or correspondence analyses. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.


Rey D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Amirzargar A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Areces C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Enriquez-De-Salamanca M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 6 more authors.
Immunological Investigations | Year: 2015

HLA class I and II alleles have been studied in a population from Gorgan (North East Iranian city bordering Turkmenistan). This population is composed of mainly Turkmen who speak Oghuz Turkish language. Comparison of Gorgan people HLA profile has been carried out with about 7984 HLA chromosomes from other worldwide populations; extended haplotypes and three dimension genetic distances have been calculated by using neighbor-joining and correspondence relatedness analyses. Most frequent extended HLA haplotypes show a Siberian/Mediterranean admixture and closest populations are Chuvashians (North Caspian Sea, Russia) and other geographically close populations like Siberian Mansi, Buryats and other Iranians. New extended HLA haplotypes have been found, such as: A∗31:01-B∗35:01-DRB1∗15:01-DQB1∗03:01, A∗01:01-B∗35:01-DRB1∗03:01-DQB1∗02:01. Relationships of Turkmen with Kurgan (Gorgan) archaeological mounds, Scythians and Sarmatians are discussed. This study is also useful for a future transplantation Gorgan waiting list, Gorgan HLA and disease epidemiology and HLA pharmacogenomics. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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