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Vijayasarathi M.K.,Madras Veterinary College TANUVAS | Sreekumar C.,Postgraduate Research Institute in Animal science | Venkataramanan R.,Postgraduate Research Institute in Animal science | Raman M.,Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10 years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77.77 and 76.04, 93.65 and 92.12, and 95.37 and 98.06 %, respectively, for fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin. In the non-beneficiary groups, the corresponding values were 74.82 and 81.09 %, 96.05 and 97.40 %, and 97.26 and 98.23 %, respectively. The results revealed resistance to fenbendazole, suspect resistance to tetramisole and susceptibility to ivermectin in beneficiary flock. In non-beneficiary flock, while resistance was noticed against fenbendazole, both tetramisole and ivermectin were effective. FECR values were found to be significantly different between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups against tetramisole. The results of LPA confirmed this finding, as 50 % of the Haemonchus contortus larvae were paralyzed at the concentration of 0.0156 μg/ml in the beneficiary group, while those of non-beneficiary groups required lower concentrations of 0.0078 μg/ml. AS-PCR revealed the predominance of heterozygous susceptible population of H. contortus in the beneficiary group. In this study, resistance to fenbendazole was confirmed in both the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups and this could be attributed to frequent use of benzimidazoles as seen from the deworming records. Emergence of tetramisole resistance was detected in the beneficiary group, where the drug was used continuously for 4 years. Ivermectin was found to be effective in all the flocks. It is recommended that the practice of routine deworming of three to four times a year should be avoided, as it can lead to emergence of anthelmintic resistance. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


PubMed | Postgraduate Research Institute in Animal science, Madras Veterinary College TANUVAS and Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77.77 and 76.04, 93.65 and 92.12, and 95.37 and 98.06%, respectively, for fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin. In the non-beneficiary groups, the corresponding values were 74.82 and 81.09%, 96.05 and 97.40%, and 97.26 and 98.23%, respectively. The results revealed resistance to fenbendazole, suspect resistance to tetramisole and susceptibility to ivermectin in beneficiary flock. In non-beneficiary flock, while resistance was noticed against fenbendazole, both tetramisole and ivermectin were effective. FECR values were found to be significantly different between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups against tetramisole. The results of LPA confirmed this finding, as 50% of the Haemonchus contortus larvae were paralyzed at the concentration of 0.0156g/ml in the beneficiary group, while those of non-beneficiary groups required lower concentrations of 0.0078g/ml. AS-PCR revealed the predominance of heterozygous susceptible population of H. contortus in the beneficiary group. In this study, resistance to fenbendazole was confirmed in both the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups and this could be attributed to frequent use of benzimidazoles as seen from the deworming records. Emergence of tetramisole resistance was detected in the beneficiary group, where the drug was used continuously for 4years. Ivermectin was found to be effective in all the flocks. It is recommended that the practice of routine deworming of three to four times a year should be avoided, as it can lead to emergence of anthelmintic resistance.


Narayanan R.,Madras Veterinary College TANUVAS | Subramonian B.S.,Madras Veterinary College TANUVAS
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2016

In the present study four isolates belonging to three bifidobacterial species with probiotic properties were isolated and identified from the faeces of breast fed infants and incorporated in the preparation of a nutraceutical whey based malt food. Identification of isolates to the genus Bifidobacteria was based on phenotypic characteristics like the unique pleomorphic morphology and carbohydrate fermentation profile. Molecular tools like 16S rRNA targeted genus and species specific mPCR were used for confirmation. The four isolates (of 3 species) identified wereB. longum (IB10 and IB12) B. breve (IB39) and B.bifidum (IB42). The nucleotide sequences of the identified species were submitted to the GenBank for acquisition of accession number. The identified species were screened for probiotic properties like bile tolerance, antimicrobial activity and tolerance to acidity. All the four isolates showed more than 80 per cent viability in the presence of 0.4, 0.8 and 1 per cent of bile salt. IsolateB. longum (IB10)showed maximum antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus (zi3.03 ± 0.019 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (zi3.00 ± 0.03 1mm),Escherichia coli (zi2.98 ± 0.043 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zi3.03 ± 0.051 mm) in the cell free supernatant. All the four bifidobacterial isolates showed more than 80 per centviability at pH 3.B. longum (IB10)was a better probiotic when compared to other isolates as it had maximum antimicrobial activity and tolerance to bile and acidity. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

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