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Amutha A.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2016

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in children. Earlier, diabetes in children was almost exclusively type 1 diabetes. Recently, the scenario has changed and increasing numbers of children and adolescent T2DM are being diagnosed. As the epidemic of T2DM shifts to children and adolescents, there is an increased risk of development of micro and macrovascular complications. This could potentially affect the economy of the nation apart from posing a large burden to the individual and his or her family. Prevention and treatment are especially important, given the fact that onset at an early age increases the risk of developing micro and macrovascular complications due to increased duration of exposure to hyperglycemia and other metabolic abnormalities. Diagnosing children and adolescents with T2DM early and instituting good control of all risk factors could yield good results in the prevention of long term complications of diabetes. This review focuses on the prevalence of complications of diabetes among children and adolescents with T2DM. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gujral U.P.,Emory University | Pradeepa R.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Weber M.B.,Emory University | Narayan K.M.V.,Emory University | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2013

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. Source


Unnikrishnan R.I.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Anjana R.M.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2011

Most of the microvascular complications of diabetes are related to the degree and the length of exposure to hyperglycaemia. New data from the follow-up studies of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial-the Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Complications Study (DCCT-EDIC), and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) emphasize the role of glycemic control early in the course of the disorder and its value in prevention of later complications. The phenomenon of ongoing beneficial effects on diabetic complications after a period of improved glycemic control even if followed by a return to usual (often poorer) metabolic control has been described as representing "metabolic memory" by the DCCT/EDIC investigators and as a "legacy effect" by the UKPDS investigators. This article reviews these concepts and explores the role of early use of insulin as a tool to achieve good glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. © SUPPLEMENT TO JAPI. Source


Shiny A.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Regin B.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Balachandar V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Gokulakrishnan K.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | And 3 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Despite the well known role of nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) receptor proteins in innate immunity, their association with diabetes is less explored. Here we report the transcriptional level of NODs and their downstream molecular signatures in CD14+ monocytes from subjects with different grades of glucose tolerance. NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and positively correlated with HOMA-IR and poor glycemic control. Patients with T2DM also exhibited increased monocyte activation markers (CD11b and CD36) and proinflammatory signals downstream of NOD (RIPK2 and NFκB) along with the increased circulatory levels of TNF-α and IL-6. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with NOD specific ligands-i-EDAP and MDP significantly up regulated the mRNA expression of NOD1 and NOD2 respectively in T2DM. Our study exposes up regulation of NODs in monocytes as an important component of inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Deepa M.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Anjana R.M.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Manjula D.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Narayan K.M.V.,Emory University | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Aim: The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Methods: Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996-1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. Results: In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p < .001). In the LIG, the prevalence rates of central obesity (baseline vs follow-up, male: 30.8 vs 50.9%, p < .001; female: 16.9 vs 49.8%, p < .001), hypertension (8.4 vs 20.1%, p < .001), hypercholesterolemia (14.2 vs. 20.4%, p < .05), and hypertriglyceridemia (8.0 vs 23.5%, p < .001) significantly increased and became similar to that seen in the MIG. Conclusion: There is a rapid reversal of socioeconomic gradient for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in urban India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. © Diabetes Technology Society. Source

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