Burney R.O.,Madigan Healthcare System
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2014
Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder histologically characterized by the displacement of endometrial tissue to extra-uterine locations. A significant cause of infertility and pelvic pain, the global socioeconomic burden of endometriosis is staggering. Laparoscopy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the condition. However, the invasive nature of surgery, coupled with the lack of a laboratory biomarker for the disease, results in a mean latency of 6-7 years from onset of symptoms to definitive diagnosis. Unfortunately, the delay in diagnosis may have significant consequences in terms of disease progression. The discovery of a sufficiently sensitive and specific biomarker for the non-surgical detection of endometriosis promises earlier diagnosis and prevention of deleterious sequelae, and remains a top research priority. The enigmatic pathophysiology of endometriosis presents unique challenges to biomarker development that are now well outlined. Within the past decade, significant advancements in understanding the molecular hallmarks of endometriosis have occurred, and promising biomarker candidates are emerging. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.
Burney R.O.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Giudice L.C.,University of California at San Francisco
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2012
Originally described over three hundred years ago, endometriosis is classically defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in extrauterine locations. Endometriosis is an inflammatory, estrogen-dependent condition associated with pelvic pain and infertility. This work reviews the disease process from theories regarding origin to the molecular basis for disease sequelae. A thorough understanding of the histopathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis is essential to the development of novel diagnostic and treatment approaches for this debilitating condition. © 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Scully W.F.,Madigan Healthcare System
Orthopedics | Year: 2013
This case report details the presentation, imaging results, and operative findings of a pseudotumor associated with a press-fit metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (THA). An 80-year-old man presented approximately 7 years after undergoing THA with worsening right groin and lateral hip pain with an associated proximal thigh mass. Physical examination demonstrated a tender, large anterolateral thigh mass that was also evident on metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging.An exploratory operative procedure revealed extensive tissue necrosis involving nearly the entire hip capsule, short external rotators, and tendinous portion of the gluteus medius muscle. In addition, marked surface corrosion was discovered about the taper at the head-neck junction of the prosthetic femoral component and the trunnion within the femoral head. The press-fit THA components were solidly fixed. The metallic head was replaced with a ceramic component, and the polyethylene liner was exchanged. The patient had complete resolution of his preoperative symptoms but had persistent problems with dislocations.Although reports of pseudotumor and local soft tissue reactions associated with metal-on-metal THAs have become increasingly ubiquitous in the literature, similar reports involving metal-on-polyethylene THA implants are less common. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Burney R.O.,Madigan Healthcare System
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder characterized by the displacement of endometrial tissue to ectopic locations. Although predisposition to endometriosis is likely multifactorial, a genetic component is evident. The biochemistry of the disorder is an area of active investigation with translational potential. This review synopsizes recent developments regarding the molecular underpinnings of endometriosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advancements in understanding the molecular hallmarks of endometriosis have occurred in recent years. Inflammation, attenuated progesterone action, and neuroangiogenesis constitute emerging themes in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. SUMMARY: Delineation of the biochemical processes involved in endometriosis has important implications for clinical care. The discovery of a sufficiently sensitive and specific biomarker for the nonsurgical detection of endometriosis promises earlier diagnosis and prevention of deleterious sequelae. Understanding the inflammatory cause, attenuated progesterone action at the level of the endometrium, and neuronal sensitization of endometriotic lesions has facilitated development of novel therapeutic approaches for associated pain and infertility. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
DeBarros M.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Steele S.R.,Madigan Healthcare System
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013
Introduction: The military health system (MHS) a unique setting to analyze implementation programs as well as outcomes for colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we look at the efficacy of different CRC screening methods, attributes and results within the MHS, and current barriers to increase compliance. Materials and Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing PubMed and the Cochrane library. Key-word combinations included colorectal cancer screening, racial disparity, risk factors, colorectal cancer, screening modalities, and randomized control trials. Directed searches were also performed of embedded references. Results: Despite screening guidelines from several national organizations, extensive barriers to widespread screening remain, especially for minority populations. These barriers are diverse, ranging from education and access problems to personal beliefs. Screening rates in MHS have been reported to be generally higher at 71% compared to national averages of 50-65%. Conclusion: CRC screening can be highly effective at improving detection of both pre-malignant and early cancers. Improved patient education and directed efforts are needed to improve CRC screening both nationally and within the MHS. ©Ivyspring International Publisher.
Causey M.W.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Salgar S.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Singh N.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Martin M.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Stallings J.D.,Madigan Healthcare System
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2012
Background: Vascular endothelial cells serve as the first line of defense for end organs after ischemia and reperfusion injuries. The full etiology of this dysfunction is poorly understood, and valproic acid (VPA) has proven to be beneficial after traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of action through which VPA exerts its beneficial effects. Methods: Sixteen Yorkshire swine underwent a standardized protocol for an ischemiareperfusion injury through hemorrhage and a supraceliac cross-clamp with ensuing 6-hour resuscitation. The experimental swine (n = 6), received VPA at cross-clamp application and were compared with a sham (n = 5) and injury-control models (n = 5). Aortic endothelium was harvested, and microarray analysis was performed along with a functional clustering analysis with gene transcript validation using relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Clinical comparison of experimental swine matched for sex, weight, and length demonstrated that VPA significantly decreased resuscitative requirements, with improved hemodynamics and physiologic laboratory measurements. Six transcript profiles from the VPA treatment were compared with the 1536 gene transcripts (529 up and 1007 down) from sham and injury-control swine. Microarray analysis and a Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery functional pathway analysis approach identified biologic processes associated with pathologic vascular endothelial function, specifically through functional cluster pathways involving apoptosis/cell death and angiogenesis/vascular development, with five specific genes (THBS1, TNFRSF12A, ANGPTL4, RHOB, and RTN4) identified as members of both functional clusters. This study also examined gene expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β-releasing thrombospondin 1 [THBS1]) and genes expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C, VEGFD, and VEGFR1 and found that these genes were involved in the endothelial functional preservation associated with VPA administration. Conclusions: VPA minimized pathologic endothelial cell function through the TGF-β and VEGF functional pathways. This study also implicates that integrated functional modeling and analysis will enable advancements in endothelial dysfunction using a systems biology approach. © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery.
Brigger M.T.,Naval Medical Center San Diego |
Boseley M.E.,Madigan Healthcare System
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2012
Purpose of review: The treatment for pediatric tracheal stenosis has evolved over the past 50 years. Open airway reconstruction has traditionally been the treatment of choice for this condition. Numerous recent publications now support the use of endoscopic techniques to both augment and sometimes replace open procedures. Recent findings: During the past 12 months, a significant interest in expanding the role of airway dilation with balloons to manage airway stenoses has emerged. Development of novel airway stents, to include bioabsorbable products, holds promise to decrease the morbidity of stenting procedures. Continued improvement in preoperative imaging, in the form of virtual bronchoscopy, may someday replace airway endoscopy for planning purposes. Additionally, perioperative management strategies and the use of novel adjuvants have been introduced with a goal of improving outcomes in both endoscopic and open techniques through better control of granulation. Ultimately, advances in tissue engineering may provide yet another reconstructive option in the future. Summary: Endoscopic techniques have an increasing role in the management of pediatric subglottic and tracheal stenosis. However, open airway reconstructive procedures are still required in cases of mature scar, high-grade stenosis, and long-segment stenosis. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Scully W.F.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Teeny S.M.,Puget Sound Orthopaedics
Orthopedics | Year: 2013
This case report details the presentation, imaging results, and operative findings of a pseudotumor associated with a press-fit metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (THA). An 80-year-old man presented approximately 7 years after undergoing THA with worsening right groin and lateral hip pain with an associated proximal thigh mass. Physical examination demonstrated a tender, large anterolateral thigh mass that was also evident on metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging. An exploratory operative procedure revealed extensive tissue necrosis involving nearly the entire hip capsule, short external rotators, and tendinous portion of the gluteus medius muscle. In addition, marked surface corrosion was discovered about the taper at the head-neck junction of the prosthetic femoral component and the trunnion within the femoral head. The press-fit THA components were solidly fixed. The metallic head was replaced with a ceramic component, and the polyethylene liner was exchanged. The patient had complete resolution of his preoperative symptoms but had persistent problems with dislocations. Although reports of pseudotumor and local soft tissue reactions associated with metal-on-metal THAs have become increasingly ubiquitous in the literature, similar reports involving metal-on-polyethylene THA implants are less common.
Flood-Nichols S.K.,Madigan Healthcare System
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) | Year: 2011
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. Although the pathogenesis of the disease begins with aberrant spiral artery invasion in the first trimester, clinical symptoms usually do not present until late in pregnancy. Apolipoprotein CII (ApoCII) and its negative regulator, apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), have recently been described as atherogenesis biomarkers in models of cardiovascular disease. Given the similarities in pathology, etiology, and clinical presentation between cardiovascular disease and preeclampsia, we hypothesized that the ratio of ApoCIII to ApoCII in maternal first trimester plasma would predict preeclampsia later in pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, plasma was prospectively collected from 311 nulliparas at 8 to 12 weeks gestation. After delivery, patients were divided into cohorts based on preeclampsia diagnosis. Conditioning monocytes with preeclamptic plasma potentiated monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in an in vitro model. The ratio of ApoCIII to ApoCII was significantly elevated in patients with severe preeclampsia relative to normotensive and gestational hypertensive individuals (P < .05) as determined by mass spectrometry and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays. These results support a predictive change in the ratio of ApoCIII to ApoCII in pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia.
Short M.W.,Madigan Healthcare System |
Domagalski J.E.,Madigan Healthcare System
American Family Physician | Year: 2013
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide and accounts for approximately one-half of anemia cases. The diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia is confirmed by the findings of low iron stores and a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below normal. Women should be screened during pregnancy, and children screened at one year of age. Supplemental iron may be given initially, followed by further workup if the patient is not responsive to therapy. Men and postmenopausal women should not be screened, but should be evaluated with gastrointestinal endoscopy if diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. The underlying cause should be treated, and oral iron therapy can be initiated to replenish iron stores. Parenteral therapy may be used in patients who cannot tolerate or absorb oral preparations. © 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.