Time filter

Source Type

Peltzer K.,STI and TB HAST Research Programme | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | And 2 more authors.
Annals of General Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Background: Little focus has been paid to the role of poor mental health and childhood abuse among young people with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in Ivory Coast.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited randomly from classes at the Félix Houphouët Boigny University of Cocody. The sample included 824 university students (50% men and 50% women), with a mean age of 23.7 years (SD = 2.7).Results: Of the 824 university students who completed the survey, 17.6% reported depression, 10.8% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, 8.3% reported at least monthly heavy episodic drinking, 13.5% reported childhood physical abuse and 4.7% sexual abuse, 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months, 66.3% had inconsistent condom use, 23.6% had alcohol use in the context of sex and 16.7% had a history of a sexually transmitted infection In multivariable analysis among men, lack of religiousness and alcohol use in the context of sex were associated with HIV risk behaviour, and among women, poorer family background, experience of sexual and physical partner violence, alcohol use in the context of sex and depression were associated with HIV risk behaviour.Conclusions: Poor mental health (depression) including alcohol use and partner violence was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Coordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of university students would be desirable. © 2013 Peltzer et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jones D.L.,University of Miami | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2013

Mpumalanga Province, South Africa has one of the highest HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates among pregnant women (-29.4%). This study sought to enhance male involvement in pregnancy to increase HIV disclosure, sexual communication, HIV knowledge and reduce unprotected sex. Participants attending Antenatal Clinics (ANC) completed HIV counseling and testing and were enrolled with male partners (n-239 couples, 478 individuals). Twelve ANCs were randomly assigned to provide a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention or the standard of care, health education sessions plus PMTCT. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (approximately 6=8 weeks post-baseline) on demographics, sexual behavior, HIVrelated knowledge, and conflict resolution strategies. Experimental participants increased HIV knowledge, use of negotiation, and decreased intimate partner violence. Additionally, they were more likely to have increased condom use from baseline to post-intervention (OR-5.1, 95% CI-[2.0, 13.3]). Seroconversions in the control condition exceeded experimental (6 vs. 0). HIV serostatus disclosure to partner did not increase over time for men or women within the experimental or control condition. Male involvement in pregnancy may be an important strategy to reduce sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission. Results support the utility of group interventions to enhance communication and HIV knowledge among pregnant couples. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014

Background Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of Indian society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors in a sample of Indian university students.Methods In a cross-sectional survey assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among a sample of randomly selected university students. The sample included 800 university students from non health (mainly sciences) courses Gitam University in India. The students were 541 (67.6%) males and 259 (32.4%) females in the age range of 17-20 years (M age 18.2 years, SD = 1.0).Results 37.5% were overweight or obese, 26.8% overweight (≥23-27.4 BMI) and 10.7% obese (≥27.5 kg/m2), 11.7% underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) and 16.4% central obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women). In multivariate analysis among men lack of non-organised religious activity (odds ratio = OR 0.85, confidence interval = CI 0.77-0.95), lower dietary risk knowledge (OR = 0.64, CI = 0.41-0.99), tobacco use (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.14-4.38), and suffering from depression (OR = 1.59, CI = 1.00-2.47) were associated with overweight/obesity, and younger age (OR = 0.32, CI = 0.12-0.90), lives away from parents or guardians (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.04-3.07), healthy dietary practices (OR = 1.95, CI = 1.02-3.72) and 9 or more hours sleep duration (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.09-0.96) were associated with central obesity. In bivariate analysis among women, lack of social support, lower dietary risk knowledge, tobacco use, and 9 or more hours sleep duration were associated with overweight/obesity and lives away from parents or guardians and abstinence from alcohol associated with central obesity.Conclusions The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity. Several gender specific health risk practices were identified including lack of dietary risk knowledge, shorter sleep duration, living away from parents or guardians, tobacco use and lack of social support and religiousness that can be utilised in health promotion programmes. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.


Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Pengpid S.,Madidol University
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

It is not clear what effect socioeconomic factors have on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among patients in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a systematic review of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases to identify studies concerning SES and HIV/AIDS and collected data on the association between various determinants of SES (income, education, occupation) and adherence to ART in low- and middle-income countries. From 252 potentially-relevant articles ini-tially identified, 62 original studies were reviewed in detail, which contained data evaluating the associa-tion between SES and adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Income, level of education, and employment/occupational status were significantly and positively associated with the level of adherence in 15 studies (41.7%), 10 studies (20.4%), and 3 studies (11.1%) respectively out of 36, 49, and 27 studies reviewed. One study for income, four studies for education, and two studies for employment found a nega-tive and significant association with adherence to ART. However, the aforementioned SES determinants were not found to be significantly associated with adherence in relation to 20 income-related (55.6%), 35 education-related (71.4%), 23 employment/occupational status-related (81.5%), and 2 SES-related (100%) studies. The systematic review of the available evidence does not provide conclusive support for the exis-tence of a clear association between SES and adherence to ART among adult patients infected with HIV/ AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. There seems to be a positive trend among components of SES (income, education, employment status) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in many of the reviewed studies. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.


Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | And 3 more authors.
General Hospital Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of different forms of intimate partner violence (physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking) on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Methods: In all 268 women (18 years and older) consecutively receiving a protection order in the Vhembe district in South Africa were assessed by an external interviewer. Hierarchical regressions tested the unique effects of different types of intimate partner violence on PTSD and depression. Results: In terms of PTSD symptom severity, more than half (51.9%) of the sample reported severe PTSD and 66.4% reported severe depression symptoms. Two types of intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms, while only psychological violence was moderately correlated with depression symptoms. Physical abuse contributed to the prediction of PTSD and psychological abuse to depression. Conclusions: A significant number of women with protection orders suffer from PTSD and depression. The results confirm a relationship between severity of intimate partner violence and mental health problems (PTSD and depression). Assessment of intimate partner violence should incorporate the multiple dimensions that have been identified as contributing to poor mental health. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University
South African Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa (SA). Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 4 900 (54.5% men, 45.5% women) consecutively selected TB patients (including new TB and new TB retreatment patients) from 42 public primary care clinics in three districts in SA were assessed using various measures (including those for alcohol and tobacco use), within one month of anti-TB treatment. Results. Overall, 10.1% (15.5% among men; 3.4% among women) were conjointly hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users and daily or almost-daily tobacco users. The proportion of daily or almost-daily tobacco users among hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users was 48.9%, (53.3% among men; 26.4% among women). Those with hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use had significantly higher odds of having anxiety and/or depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; confidence interval (CI) 1.13 - 1.65) and exhibiting daily or almost-daily tobacco use (OR 5.94; CI 4.33 - 5.87). The mean ± standard deviation alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score among conjoint hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users and daily or almost-daily tobacco users was significantly higher (17.1±6.1) than among hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users who were not current tobacco users (15.4±5.6) (p;0.001). In multivariate analysis, male gender, coloured ethnicity, lower education and greater poverty, TB retreatment patient status and non-adherence to anti-TB medication were associated with a greater risk for conjoint alcohol and tobacco use. Conclusions. A high prevalence and several risk factors for conjoint alcohol and tobacco use were found among TB patients. The findings of this study call for dual-intervention approaches to alcohol and tobacco use.


Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health | Year: 2014

The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age = 20.1 years, SD = 1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD = 2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate contraceptive non-use and associated factors (socio-demographics, sexual behaviour, internal assets and mental health) among undergraduate university students in 22 countries. Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data was collected from 16979 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 23 universities in 22 countries. Results: Of the total sample of 16979 undergraduate university students, 7032 (41.9%) reported to have been sexually active in the past 12 months. Of those who had been sexually active, 42.6% reported never (42.7% among male and 42.6% among female students) using contraceptives in the past 12 months. In multivariate regression analysis, among both men and women, younger age, religious affiliation (Hindu; and among women only being Muslim), intrinsic religiosity, and sexually protective behaviour were associated with contraceptive non-use. Lack of internal assets (among men, low life satisfaction and lack of personal control, and among women low personal mastery); among women not having depressive symptoms and among men having PTSD symptoms were associated with contraceptive non-use. Conclusion: Low contraceptive use was found and several factors identified as associated with contraceptive non-use may help guide intervention efforts. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.


Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was -1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Loading Madidol University collaborators
Loading Madidol University collaborators