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Jones D.L.,University of Miami | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2013

Mpumalanga Province, South Africa has one of the highest HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates among pregnant women (-29.4%). This study sought to enhance male involvement in pregnancy to increase HIV disclosure, sexual communication, HIV knowledge and reduce unprotected sex. Participants attending Antenatal Clinics (ANC) completed HIV counseling and testing and were enrolled with male partners (n-239 couples, 478 individuals). Twelve ANCs were randomly assigned to provide a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention or the standard of care, health education sessions plus PMTCT. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (approximately 6=8 weeks post-baseline) on demographics, sexual behavior, HIVrelated knowledge, and conflict resolution strategies. Experimental participants increased HIV knowledge, use of negotiation, and decreased intimate partner violence. Additionally, they were more likely to have increased condom use from baseline to post-intervention (OR-5.1, 95% CI-[2.0, 13.3]). Seroconversions in the control condition exceeded experimental (6 vs. 0). HIV serostatus disclosure to partner did not increase over time for men or women within the experimental or control condition. Male involvement in pregnancy may be an important strategy to reduce sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission. Results support the utility of group interventions to enhance communication and HIV knowledge among pregnant couples. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Madidol University
South African Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa (SA). Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 4 900 (54.5% men, 45.5% women) consecutively selected TB patients (including new TB and new TB retreatment patients) from 42 public primary care clinics in three districts in SA were assessed using various measures (including those for alcohol and tobacco use), within one month of anti-TB treatment. Results. Overall, 10.1% (15.5% among men; 3.4% among women) were conjointly hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users and daily or almost-daily tobacco users. The proportion of daily or almost-daily tobacco users among hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users was 48.9%, (53.3% among men; 26.4% among women). Those with hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use had significantly higher odds of having anxiety and/or depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; confidence interval (CI) 1.13 - 1.65) and exhibiting daily or almost-daily tobacco use (OR 5.94; CI 4.33 - 5.87). The mean ± standard deviation alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score among conjoint hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users and daily or almost-daily tobacco users was significantly higher (17.1±6.1) than among hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users who were not current tobacco users (15.4±5.6) (p;0.001). In multivariate analysis, male gender, coloured ethnicity, lower education and greater poverty, TB retreatment patient status and non-adherence to anti-TB medication were associated with a greater risk for conjoint alcohol and tobacco use. Conclusions. A high prevalence and several risk factors for conjoint alcohol and tobacco use were found among TB patients. The findings of this study call for dual-intervention approaches to alcohol and tobacco use. Source


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene ( Source


Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,University of Limpopo | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo
African Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate contraceptive non-use and associated factors (socio-demographics, sexual behaviour, internal assets and mental health) among undergraduate university students in 22 countries. Methods: Using anonymous questionnaires, data was collected from 16979 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 23 universities in 22 countries. Results: Of the total sample of 16979 undergraduate university students, 7032 (41.9%) reported to have been sexually active in the past 12 months. Of those who had been sexually active, 42.6% reported never (42.7% among male and 42.6% among female students) using contraceptives in the past 12 months. In multivariate regression analysis, among both men and women, younger age, religious affiliation (Hindu; and among women only being Muslim), intrinsic religiosity, and sexually protective behaviour were associated with contraceptive non-use. Lack of internal assets (among men, low life satisfaction and lack of personal control, and among women low personal mastery); among women not having depressive symptoms and among men having PTSD symptoms were associated with contraceptive non-use. Conclusion: Low contraceptive use was found and several factors identified as associated with contraceptive non-use may help guide intervention efforts. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved. Source


Pengpid S.,University of Limpopo | Pengpid S.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,Madidol University | Peltzer K.,Human science Research Council HSRC | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was -1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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