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Chennai, India

Background and Objectives: Metabolic disorders, oral precancerous conditions and oral cancer are accompanied by alterations in the concentration of one or more trace elements like copper, iron, zinc, magnesium etc., in some body fluids, especially blood serum or plasma, which can help not only in the early diagnosis and treatment but also in prognosis. The objective of the study is to evaluate the levels of circulating trace elements (copper, iron, magnesium, zinc and calcium) in serum of patients with Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC), to analyze the alteration and identify the best predictors amongst these parameters for disease occurrence and progression and their association with areca nut and betel quid chewing habits. Materials and Method: Serum levels of trace elements (copper, iron, magnesium, zinc and calcium) were estimated using electronic absorption colorimetric method. These levels were compared with controls and statistically evaluated using ANOVA and POST-HOC TUKEY tests. Results: The data analysis revealed that serum copper levels increased gradually from precancer to cancer, as the duration of betel quid chewing habit increased. However, serum iron, magnesium, zinc levels were decreased significantly in both the groups. Serum calcium levels were increased in the cancer group owing to bone resorption in the later stages of the disease, whereas it was close to normal in OSF patients. Among all the trace elements, the best predictor for occurrence of both the lesions was copper. Conclusion: The present study shows that the above trace elements may be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of OSF and OSCC. Betel quid and areca nut chewing habits are frequently associated with both disease states and may play a role in altering the serum levels of these trace elements. Concerted efforts would, therefore, help in early detection, management and monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

Vidyalakshmi K.,Madha Dental College | Kamalakannan P.,Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute MAHER | Viswanathan S.,Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute MAHER | Ramaswamy S.,Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical science
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of four dihydroxy flavone derivatives; 3,3'-dihydroxy flavone, 5,6-dihydroxy flavone, 3,7-dihydroxy flavone and 6,3'-dihydroxy flavone and to further investigate the multiple cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds. The effect of dihydroxy flavones on acute inflammation was studied in rats employing carrageenan induced hind paw edema method. Further, the role of proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), and free radicals in the action of flavone derivatives was investigated using in vitro assays. All the four dihydroxy flavone derivatives exhibited time and dose dependent inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema. In addition, the investigated compounds inhibited both the isoforms of cyclooxygenase and cytokines in a concentration dependant manner and also suppressed the release of reactive oxygen species. The anti-inflammatory effect of dihydroxy flavones may be through mechanisms that involve an interaction with cyclooxygenases, cytokines and reactive oxygen species. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Mahesh R.,Saveetha Dental College | Kanimozhi I.G.,Sri Ramachandra University | Shivakumar M.,Madha Dental College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Alterations in the morphology of permanent teeth following trauma to their predecessors is a challenging task for diagnosis and it may require advanced imaging techniques. Newer imaging modalities have replaced the conventional radiological procedures, as they allow 3D reconstruction images and views which are free of superimposition. Cone Beam CT (CBCT) offers a three-dimensional view, which the conventional two-dimensional dental radiography fails to provide. The current article highlights the advantages of CBCT which are seen in evaluation of the morphological variations and eruptive disturbances in the permanent teeth, as sequelae to trauma in their predecessors.

Yoithapprabhunath T.R.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Maheswaran T.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Dineshshankar J.,Vivekanandha Dental College for Women | Anusushanth A.,Educare Institute of Dental science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2013

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant condition affecting the oral cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the oral mucosa eventually causing trismus. This condition is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with limited success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions.

Sundar S.S.,Meenakshi Ammal Dental College | Jayesh S.R.,Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital | Hussain S.,Madha Dental College
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) are involved in bone transformation at the extraction site postdental extraction. We examined the genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP-1 and continuous atrophy of edentulous mandible. Methods: Buccal cells from 33 edentulous patients were collected using sterile wooden spatula and were suspended in 15 ml falcon tubes containing 1.5 ml of cell lysis buffer, without proteinase K. The cells were transported to the laboratory on ice and were stored at -20°C until being processed. Results: Of the samples analyzed, 26 edentulous patients (78.8%) carried 2G allele, while 7 of them (21.2%) carried 1G allele. Conclusion: The patients with the alveolar bone resorption exhibited more of 2G allele while only 21.2% of them showed 1G allele, associated with excessive atrophy of edentulous mandible. This study may provide genetic background to identify susceptible individuals prone to develop jawbone atrophy after dental extraction. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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