Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation

Battambang, Cambodia

Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation

Battambang, Cambodia

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Chanthy P.,University of New England of Australia | Chanthy P.,Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development Institute | Martin R.J.,Agricultural Systems Research Cambodia Co. | Martin R.J.,Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

According to geographical distribution, Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) can be found across tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions and this pattern is assumed to reflect differences in thermal adaptation, particularly in cold tolerance. Here the lethal temperature (LT) and critical thermal limits (CTL) (thermal tolerance) are examined for N. viridula. The upper LT for N. viridula at two contrasting climate locations (Breeza and Grafton, New South Wales, Australia) was 40.3°C with 20% survival under the stress of high temperature. The lower LT did not differ between these two populations and was -8.0°C with 20% survival under low temperature stress. Survival of N. viridula increased after acclimation at high temperature for 7 days. In contrast, when acclimated at lower temperatures (10 and 15°C), survival of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula was lower than 20% at -8.0°C. Control-reared N. viridula adults (25°C) had a mean CTMinOnset (cold stupor) of 1.3 ± 2.1°C and a mean CTMax (heat coma) of 45.9 ± 0.9°C. After 7 days of acclimation at 10, 20, 30, or 35°C, N. viridula adults exhibited a 1°C change in CTMax and a ~1.5°C change in CTMinOnset. CTMax and CTMinOnset of Breeza and Grafton N. viridula populations did not differ across acclimation temperatures. These results suggest that short-term temperature acclimation is more important than provenance for determining LTs and CTL in N. viridula. © 2012 Chanthy, Martin, Gunning and Andrew.


Martin R.,ASR Cambodia Co. | Im S.,Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation | Phan S.,Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation | Ly K.,University of Battambang | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2015

A series of experiments was carried out in 2012–2014 in Pailin province, Cambodia, to determine the potential and agronomic requirements for a dry season sunflower crop. The research showed that the six high-oleic sunflower hybrids evaluated were similar for phenological development and yield but two varieties had <50% emergence and poor hybrid seed quality was seen as a constraint to planting under rainfed conditions. Sunflower receiving a basal application of 20:20:15 (N:P2O5:K2O) at 200 kg ha− 1 produced achene yield of 2423 kg− 1, while side-dressing with urea had no effect on yield. Application of s-metolachlor post-sowing pre-emergence was the most effective weed control treatment and significantly increased sunflower achene yield. Post-emergence weed control was not adequate to prevent yield loss from weed competition. The study showed that sunflower can be grown successfully as a dry season crop in North-West Cambodia when planted no-tillage on residual soil water remaining after maize harvest in October and November. The critical requirements for success are related to preservation and effective use of residual soil water and include minimal soil disturbance, adequate application of fertiliser at sowing, and pre-emergence control of weeds, especially grasses. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Martin R.,ASR Cambodia Co. | Im S.,Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation | Phan S.,Maddox Jolie Pitt Foundation | Ly K.,University of Battambang | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

A series of experiments was carried out in 2012-2014 in Pailin province, Cambodia, to determine the potential and agronomic requirements for a dry season sunflower crop. The research showed that the six high-oleic sunflower hybrids evaluated were similar for phenological development and yield but two varieties had <50% emergence and poor hybrid seed quality was seen as a constraint to planting under rainfed conditions. Sunflower receiving a basal application of 20:20:15 (N:P2O5:K2O) at 200 kg ha-1 produced achene yield of 2423 kg-1, while side-dressing with urea had no effect on yield. Application of s-metolachlor post-sowing pre-emergence was the most effective weed control treatment and significantly increased sunflower achene yield. Post-emergence weed control was not adequate to prevent yield loss from weed competition. The study showed that sunflower can be grown successfully as a dry season crop in North-West Cambodia when planted no-tillage on residual soil water remaining after maize harvest in October and November. The critical requirements for success are related to preservation and effective use of residual soil water and include minimal soil disturbance, adequate application of fertiliser at sowing, and pre-emergence control of weeds, especially grasses. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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