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Bale, Ethiopia

Woldemariam G.,Madawalabu University | Seyoum A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ketema M.,Haramaya University
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2016

This paper discusses residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved liquid waste treatment in Addis Ababa based on data collected in 2011 using random parameter logit model. Findings indicate that respondents are willing to contribute for improved liquid waste treatment with higher quantity and quality. Their mean WTP for the medium improvement scenario is found to be 15.53 ETB (0.93 USD) per month. The compensation surplus tends to increase from the status quo to the alternative scenarios with aggressive improvement. Finally, the paper concludes by indicating the socioeconomic difference across households, and sub-cities need to be considered in designing environmental protection plans for the city. © 2015 University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Source

The effect of feeding concentrate mix, khat leftover or their mixtures on intake, digestibility and body weight change were studied using twenty five yearling intact male Hararghe Highland goats with mean initial body weight of 17.8 ± 1.30 kg (mean ± SD). Goats were grouped into five blocks of five animals and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were prepared in such a way that crude protein from concentrate mix (CMCP) was substituted with crude protein from khat leftover (KCP) at a ratio of 0, 33, 67 and 100% on dry matter (DM) basis. Treatments consisted of ad labitum feeding of natural grass hay alone (T1, control) and natural grass hay supplemented with CMCP-100% (T2), KCP-33% + CMCP-67% (T3), KCP- 67% + CMCP-33% (T4), KCP-100% (T5) on DM basis. The study consisted of 90 days growth and 7 days digestibility trials. Supplemented (T2-T5) goats consumed more (P<0.001) total dry matter intake and metabolisable energy than the control (T1). The highest (P<0.001) total crude protein (CP) intake was observed in goats supplemented with T2 (80.5±1.26) which followed by T3 (75.7±1.26), T4 (57.7±1.26), T5 (43.8±1.26) and lowest in T1 (28.7±1.26). Digestibility of dry matter (64-65%) and organic matter (66- 67%) were higher (P<0.001) for goats supplemented with T2, T3, T4 and T5 than the goats in T1 (52 and 54% for DM and OM, respectively), but similar (P<0.001) among the T2, T3, T4 and T5 supplemented goats. The effect of dietary treatment on crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher (p<0.001) in order of T1 Source

Erkossa T.,International Water Management Institute | Wudneh A.,Madawalabu University | Desalegn B.,Mekelle University | Taye G.,Bahir Dar University
Solid Earth | Year: 2015

The study was conducted in three watersheds (Dapo, Meja and Mizewa) in the Ethiopian part of the Blue Nile Basin to estimate the on-site cost of soil erosion using the productivity change approach, in which crop yield reduction due to plant nutrients lost with the sediment and runoff has been analysed. For this purpose, runoff measurement and sampling was conducted during the main rainy season of 2011 at the outlet of two to three sub-watersheds in each watershed. The sediment concentration of the runoff, and N and P contents in runoff and sediment were determined. Crop response functions were developed for the two plant nutrients based on data obtained from the nearest Agricultural Research Centres. The response functions were used to estimate crop yield reduction as a result of the lost N and P assuming there is no compensation through fertilization. The results show a significant yield reduction and resultant financial loss to the farmers. Considering only grain yield of maize (Zea mays), farmers at Dapo annually lose about USD 220 ha-1 and 150 ha-1 due to the loss of N and P, respectively. In view of the importance of the crop residues, including as feed, the loss can be even greater. The study demonstrated that in addition to the long-term deterioration of land quality, the annual financial loss suffered by farmers is substantial. Therefore, on farm soil and water conservation measures that are suitable in biophysical and socio-economic terms in the landscapes and beyond need to be encouraged. © Author(s) 2015. Source

Subakanmani S.,Karunya University | Murugan S.,Karunya University | Uma Devi P.,Madawalabu University
Asian Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2016

The purpose of the study was to investigate the anti-depressant like effect of ethanolic extract of H. hookerianum (EEHh 200 and 400 mg kg-1 p.o.,) and its glycosidic flavonoid enriched extract of ethanolic extract of H. hookerianum (GFHh 100 mg kg-1 p.o.,) in reserpine induced (2 mg kg-1 i.p.,) Swiss albino mice. The flavonoidal constiteuents in EEHh and GFHh was confirmed by HPLC. The behavioral analysis of forced swimming test, tail suspension test, locomotor activity in mice has been conducted. Brain superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and lipid peroxidation were estimated biochemically. Brain monoamine oxidase (A and B) activity has been carried out by double beam spectrophotometer. All the values in this study indicated that the GFHh posses well specified antidepressant activity than EEHh due to higher concentration of flavonoids as confirmed by HPLC. © 2016 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Eticha B.T.,Madawalabu University | Sisay Z.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Alemayehu A.,Hawassa University | Shimelis T.,Hawassa University
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting: This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants: A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the same period were also included. Participants under 15 years of age and treated for syphilis and with a CD4 T-cell count below 50 cells/ mm3 were excluded. Outcome measures: Blood samples and data on sociodemographic and risk factors for syphilis were collected. Sera were screened for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, and those positives were retested using Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) test. Results: The seroprevalence of syphilis among HIVinfected individuals was 9.8% compared with 1.3% among HIV-uninfected individuals, OR 8.01 (95% CI 2.4 to 26.6; p=0.001). A comparable rate of syphilis was found among men (11%) and women (8.9%) with HIV infection. Syphilis prevalence non-significantly increased with age, with the highest rate in 40- 49 years of age (16.9%). Except a history of sexually transmitted infections, which was associated with syphilis OR 2.25 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.9; p=0.042), other risk factors did not raise the odds of infection. Conclusions: The high prevalence of syphilis among people with HIV infection highlights the need to target this population to prevent the transmission of both infections. Screening all HIV-infected people for syphilis and managing those infected would have clinical and epidemiological importance. Source

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