Bale, Ethiopia
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PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Ministry of Health, Jimma University, Ministry of Public Health and 90 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2016

Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a childs potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.

Eticha B.T.,Madawalabu University | Sisay Z.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Alemayehu A.,Hawassa University | Shimelis T.,Hawassa University
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting: This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants: A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the same period were also included. Participants under 15 years of age and treated for syphilis and with a CD4 T-cell count below 50 cells/ mm3 were excluded. Outcome measures: Blood samples and data on sociodemographic and risk factors for syphilis were collected. Sera were screened for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, and those positives were retested using Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) test. Results: The seroprevalence of syphilis among HIVinfected individuals was 9.8% compared with 1.3% among HIV-uninfected individuals, OR 8.01 (95% CI 2.4 to 26.6; p=0.001). A comparable rate of syphilis was found among men (11%) and women (8.9%) with HIV infection. Syphilis prevalence non-significantly increased with age, with the highest rate in 40- 49 years of age (16.9%). Except a history of sexually transmitted infections, which was associated with syphilis OR 2.25 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.9; p=0.042), other risk factors did not raise the odds of infection. Conclusions: The high prevalence of syphilis among people with HIV infection highlights the need to target this population to prevent the transmission of both infections. Screening all HIV-infected people for syphilis and managing those infected would have clinical and epidemiological importance.

Mengistu Tsidu G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Ture K.,Madawalabu University | Sivakumar V.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2013

MOZAIC instrument measured enhanced ozone on two occasions in February, 1996 and 1997 at cruise altitude over North Africa. The cause and source of ozone enhancements over the region are investigated using additional reanalysis data from ERA-Interim. The ERA-Interim reprocessed GOME ozone indicated existence of enhancement as well. Both observational data revealed that the increase in ozone has wider latitudinal coverage extending from North Europe upto North Africa. The geopotential heights and zonal wind from ERA-Interim have indicated existence of planetary-scale flow that allowed meridional airmass exchanges between subtropics and higher latitudes. The presence of troughs-ridge pattern are attributable to large amplitude waves of zonal wavenumber 1-5 propagating eastward in the winter hemisphere westerly current as determined from Hayashi spectra as well as local fractional variance spectra determined from Multitaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD) spectral method. MTM-SVD is also used to understand the role of these waves on ozone enhancement and variability during the observation period in a mechanistic approach. A joint analysis of driving field, such as wind and potential vorticity (PV) for which only signals of the dominant zonal wavenumbers of prevailing planetary waves are retained, has revealed strong linkage between wave activity and ozone enhancement over the region at a temporal cycle of 5.8. days. One of these features is the displacement of the polar vortex southward during the enhancements, allowing strong airmass, energy and momentum exchanges. Evidence of cutoff laws that are formed within the deep trough, characteristics of Rossby wave breaking, is also seen in the ozone horizontal distribution at different pressure levels during the events. The reconstruction of signals with the cycle of 5.8. days has shown that the time and strength of enhancement depend on the circulation patterns dictated by planetary-scale flow relative to the location of observation. The positive PV anomalies upstream or at the observation region bring ozone rich airmass to the region while a negative PV anomaly upstream does the opposite. The position of the anomalies with time changes in accordance with the period of the waves involved. The snap shot of coherent variation of PV and ozone at different time during half cycle of the 5.8-day period has indicated that a region could experience positive (enhancement) or negative (depletion) ozone anomalies of different degree as the wave propagates eastward. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

The effect of feeding concentrate mix, khat leftover or their mixtures on intake, digestibility and body weight change were studied using twenty five yearling intact male Hararghe Highland goats with mean initial body weight of 17.8 ± 1.30 kg (mean ± SD). Goats were grouped into five blocks of five animals and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were prepared in such a way that crude protein from concentrate mix (CMCP) was substituted with crude protein from khat leftover (KCP) at a ratio of 0, 33, 67 and 100% on dry matter (DM) basis. Treatments consisted of ad labitum feeding of natural grass hay alone (T1, control) and natural grass hay supplemented with CMCP-100% (T2), KCP-33% + CMCP-67% (T3), KCP- 67% + CMCP-33% (T4), KCP-100% (T5) on DM basis. The study consisted of 90 days growth and 7 days digestibility trials. Supplemented (T2-T5) goats consumed more (P<0.001) total dry matter intake and metabolisable energy than the control (T1). The highest (P<0.001) total crude protein (CP) intake was observed in goats supplemented with T2 (80.5±1.26) which followed by T3 (75.7±1.26), T4 (57.7±1.26), T5 (43.8±1.26) and lowest in T1 (28.7±1.26). Digestibility of dry matter (64-65%) and organic matter (66- 67%) were higher (P<0.001) for goats supplemented with T2, T3, T4 and T5 than the goats in T1 (52 and 54% for DM and OM, respectively), but similar (P<0.001) among the T2, T3, T4 and T5 supplemented goats. The effect of dietary treatment on crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher (p<0.001) in order of T1

Woldemariam G.,Madawalabu University | Seyoum A.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Ketema M.,Haramaya University
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2016

This paper discusses residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved liquid waste treatment in Addis Ababa based on data collected in 2011 using random parameter logit model. Findings indicate that respondents are willing to contribute for improved liquid waste treatment with higher quantity and quality. Their mean WTP for the medium improvement scenario is found to be 15.53 ETB (0.93 USD) per month. The compensation surplus tends to increase from the status quo to the alternative scenarios with aggressive improvement. Finally, the paper concludes by indicating the socioeconomic difference across households, and sub-cities need to be considered in designing environmental protection plans for the city. © 2015 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Zhou L.-W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Vlasak J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Decock C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Assefa A.,Madawalabu University | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2016

Although Inonotus linteus complex is placed in the genus Inonotus, its perennial basidiocarps with a dimitic hyphal system, at least in the trama, distinguish the complex from other species in the genus, which have an annual habit and a monomitic hyphal system. The species number of Inonotus linteus complex has been increased in China and tropical America in recent publications. However, whether species in this complex belong to Inonotus has not specifically been addressed. To explore the phylogenetic placement of species of Inonotus linteus complex, we performed a comprehensive study using morphological and phylogenetic data based on global samples. nLSU (53 with 13 new) and ITS (70 with 18 new) datasets were used to produce the phylogenetic results. Taking into consideration the phylogenies inferred from the nLSU and ITS datasets, Inonotus is a polyphyletic genus comprising at least three clades. Clade A, the core Inonotus clade, contains the generic type, Inonotus hispidus, while Clades B and C comprise species from the Inonotus linteus complex. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence indicates that Clades B and C are new genera, and Sanghuangporus and Tropicoporus are introduced in this study. Ten species are transferred to Sanghuangporus and seven to Tropicoporus. Tropicoporus excentrodendri and T. guanacastensis spp. nov. are described, and their distinctive characters are discussed. Keys to the two new genera and the Inonotus sensu stricto, and to species of each new genus are provided. © 2015, School of Science.

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