Adem M.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Adem M.,Madawalabu University |
Beyene D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Feyissa T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Plant Methods | Year: 2017
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering. Chloroplast genetic engineering has made fruit full progresses in the development of plants resistance to various stresses, phytoremediation of toxic metals, and production of vaccine antigens, biopharmaceuticals, biofuels, biomaterials and industrial enzymes. Although successful results have been achieved, there are still difficulties impeding full potential exploitation and expansion of chloroplast transformation technology to economical plants. These include, lack of species specific regulatory sequences, problem of selection and shoot regeneration, and massive expression of foreign genes resulting in phenotypic alterations of transplastomic plants. The aim of this review is to critically recapitulate the latest development of chloroplast transformation with special focus on the different traits of economic interest. © 2017 The Author(s).
Sarin C.R.,Vimal Jyothi Engineering College |
Nair S.P.S.,University of Southern Queensland |
Krishnan S.,Madawalabu University |
Mani G.,Vellore Institute of Technology
International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System, SCOPES 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2017
The solar and wind power has recently become a potential option in power systems and act significantly to meet the penetration of demands. The present growth of such renewable energy sources has shown an exponential increase in on-grid generation systems. The high penetration of such systems help a grid to effectively meet its load requirements during an irregular demand but also create some disturbances in grid due to frequent addition and detachments of loads/sources. The renewable energy sources that usually works in on-grid mod is to be attached and cut down from the grids without creating disturbances in stable grid. Another important requirement is the effective load management with less transmission losses. The proposed system introduces a method for optimized source additions and effective load scheduling without disturbing the stability of the system. It uses a three-layer metaheuristics multidimensional algorithm, composed of Adaptive Hopfield network which is used to identify the gridand a Genetic Algorithm to identify the optimist load scheduling. © 2016 IEEE.
Eticha B.T.,Madawalabu University |
Sisay Z.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Alemayehu A.,Hawassa University |
Shimelis T.,Hawassa University
BMJ Open | Year: 2013
Objective: To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting: This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants: A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the same period were also included. Participants under 15 years of age and treated for syphilis and with a CD4 T-cell count below 50 cells/ mm3 were excluded. Outcome measures: Blood samples and data on sociodemographic and risk factors for syphilis were collected. Sera were screened for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, and those positives were retested using Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) test. Results: The seroprevalence of syphilis among HIVinfected individuals was 9.8% compared with 1.3% among HIV-uninfected individuals, OR 8.01 (95% CI 2.4 to 26.6; p=0.001). A comparable rate of syphilis was found among men (11%) and women (8.9%) with HIV infection. Syphilis prevalence non-significantly increased with age, with the highest rate in 40- 49 years of age (16.9%). Except a history of sexually transmitted infections, which was associated with syphilis OR 2.25 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.9; p=0.042), other risk factors did not raise the odds of infection. Conclusions: The high prevalence of syphilis among people with HIV infection highlights the need to target this population to prevent the transmission of both infections. Screening all HIV-infected people for syphilis and managing those infected would have clinical and epidemiological importance.
Mengistu Tsidu G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Ture K.,Madawalabu University |
Sivakumar V.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2013
MOZAIC instrument measured enhanced ozone on two occasions in February, 1996 and 1997 at cruise altitude over North Africa. The cause and source of ozone enhancements over the region are investigated using additional reanalysis data from ERA-Interim. The ERA-Interim reprocessed GOME ozone indicated existence of enhancement as well. Both observational data revealed that the increase in ozone has wider latitudinal coverage extending from North Europe upto North Africa. The geopotential heights and zonal wind from ERA-Interim have indicated existence of planetary-scale flow that allowed meridional airmass exchanges between subtropics and higher latitudes. The presence of troughs-ridge pattern are attributable to large amplitude waves of zonal wavenumber 1-5 propagating eastward in the winter hemisphere westerly current as determined from Hayashi spectra as well as local fractional variance spectra determined from Multitaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD) spectral method. MTM-SVD is also used to understand the role of these waves on ozone enhancement and variability during the observation period in a mechanistic approach. A joint analysis of driving field, such as wind and potential vorticity (PV) for which only signals of the dominant zonal wavenumbers of prevailing planetary waves are retained, has revealed strong linkage between wave activity and ozone enhancement over the region at a temporal cycle of 5.8. days. One of these features is the displacement of the polar vortex southward during the enhancements, allowing strong airmass, energy and momentum exchanges. Evidence of cutoff laws that are formed within the deep trough, characteristics of Rossby wave breaking, is also seen in the ozone horizontal distribution at different pressure levels during the events. The reconstruction of signals with the cycle of 5.8. days has shown that the time and strength of enhancement depend on the circulation patterns dictated by planetary-scale flow relative to the location of observation. The positive PV anomalies upstream or at the observation region bring ozone rich airmass to the region while a negative PV anomaly upstream does the opposite. The position of the anomalies with time changes in accordance with the period of the waves involved. The snap shot of coherent variation of PV and ozone at different time during half cycle of the 5.8-day period has indicated that a region could experience positive (enhancement) or negative (depletion) ozone anomalies of different degree as the wave propagates eastward. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Getinet Y.,Madawalabu University |
Yoseph M.,Haramaya University
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014
The effect of feeding concentrate mix, khat leftover or their mixtures on intake, digestibility and body weight change were studied using twenty five yearling intact male Hararghe Highland goats with mean initial body weight of 17.8 ± 1.30 kg (mean ± SD). Goats were grouped into five blocks of five animals and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were prepared in such a way that crude protein from concentrate mix (CMCP) was substituted with crude protein from khat leftover (KCP) at a ratio of 0, 33, 67 and 100% on dry matter (DM) basis. Treatments consisted of ad labitum feeding of natural grass hay alone (T1, control) and natural grass hay supplemented with CMCP-100% (T2), KCP-33% + CMCP-67% (T3), KCP- 67% + CMCP-33% (T4), KCP-100% (T5) on DM basis. The study consisted of 90 days growth and 7 days digestibility trials. Supplemented (T2-T5) goats consumed more (P<0.001) total dry matter intake and metabolisable energy than the control (T1). The highest (P<0.001) total crude protein (CP) intake was observed in goats supplemented with T2 (80.5±1.26) which followed by T3 (75.7±1.26), T4 (57.7±1.26), T5 (43.8±1.26) and lowest in T1 (28.7±1.26). Digestibility of dry matter (64-65%) and organic matter (66- 67%) were higher (P<0.001) for goats supplemented with T2, T3, T4 and T5 than the goats in T1 (52 and 54% for DM and OM, respectively), but similar (P<0.001) among the T2, T3, T4 and T5 supplemented goats. The effect of dietary treatment on crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher (p<0.001) in order of T1
Woldemariam G.,Madawalabu University |
Seyoum A.,University of Illinois at Chicago |
Ketema M.,Haramaya University
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2016
This paper discusses residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved liquid waste treatment in Addis Ababa based on data collected in 2011 using random parameter logit model. Findings indicate that respondents are willing to contribute for improved liquid waste treatment with higher quantity and quality. Their mean WTP for the medium improvement scenario is found to be 15.53 ETB (0.93 USD) per month. The compensation surplus tends to increase from the status quo to the alternative scenarios with aggressive improvement. Finally, the paper concludes by indicating the socioeconomic difference across households, and sub-cities need to be considered in designing environmental protection plans for the city. © 2015 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Zhou L.-W.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology |
Vlasak J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Decock C.,Catholic University of Louvain |
Assefa A.,Madawalabu University |
And 4 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2016
Although Inonotus linteus complex is placed in the genus Inonotus, its perennial basidiocarps with a dimitic hyphal system, at least in the trama, distinguish the complex from other species in the genus, which have an annual habit and a monomitic hyphal system. The species number of Inonotus linteus complex has been increased in China and tropical America in recent publications. However, whether species in this complex belong to Inonotus has not specifically been addressed. To explore the phylogenetic placement of species of Inonotus linteus complex, we performed a comprehensive study using morphological and phylogenetic data based on global samples. nLSU (53 with 13 new) and ITS (70 with 18 new) datasets were used to produce the phylogenetic results. Taking into consideration the phylogenies inferred from the nLSU and ITS datasets, Inonotus is a polyphyletic genus comprising at least three clades. Clade A, the core Inonotus clade, contains the generic type, Inonotus hispidus, while Clades B and C comprise species from the Inonotus linteus complex. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence indicates that Clades B and C are new genera, and Sanghuangporus and Tropicoporus are introduced in this study. Ten species are transferred to Sanghuangporus and seven to Tropicoporus. Tropicoporus excentrodendri and T. guanacastensis spp. nov. are described, and their distinctive characters are discussed. Keys to the two new genera and the Inonotus sensu stricto, and to species of each new genus are provided. © 2015, School of Science.
Hailu F.B.,Jimma University |
Worku Kassahun C.,MadaWalabu University |
Woldie Kerie M.,Jimma University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Background: Nurse-physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88-19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52-19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care. Conclusion: Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse-physician communication improvement strategies to solve communication mishaps in patient care. © 2016 Hailu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mengistu Tsidu G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Ture K.,Madawalabu University
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013
The possible cause and sources of enhanced ozone at upper tropospheric equatorial Africa, observed by cruise Measurements of OZone by Airbus In Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) during the Northern Hemisphere winter in 1996 and 1997 on flight routes from Johannesburg to Vienna, are investigated. Two enhanced ozone events over upper tropospheric equatorial Africa are identified from MOZAIC observations on April 6, 1996 and March 27, 1997. High resolution ECMWF reanalysis GOME ozone has exhibited enhancement as well during these periods suggesting that the two events are not isolated small scale events but part of a larger scale process. As a result, the source and mechanisms of ozone increase over the region are further analysed using reanalysis data from ECMWF, outgoing long wave radiation (OLR) from NOAA and Meteosat images from NASA, International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. Equivalent latitude computed from potential vorticity has shown that massive mid- and high-latitude stratospheric ozone rich airmass is funnelled into lower latitude troposphere through troughs extending from large amplitude planetary waves towards equator. The Space-time Fourier decomposition of meridionally averaged zonal wind has revealed that these planetary wave activities are linked to waves with zonal wavenumber 1-2, which prevail during Northern Hemisphere winter. Additional analysis to understand the mechanisms of ozone enhancement was made using Multitaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD) spectral approach. The analysis confirms that ozone enhancement over the region is dependent on the relative position of positive PV and direction of wind anomalies. The high relative humidity measured simultaneously with ozone onboard MOZAIC, Meteosat imageries and circulation during the events have shown presence of deep convection. The coherent variation of OLR and ozone found over 8-day temporal cycle determined from MTM-SVD has indicated existence of OLR negative forcing in the upper troposphere and positive forcing in the lower stratosphere. These results show coupling of PV intrusion and deep convection over continental equatorial Africa in the same manner as the climatologically preferred intrusion over mid-ocean in eastern pacific. Moreover, the results enrich previous understanding with purely observational high resolution MOZAIC and ERA-Interim datasets, and statistical method. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Fikiru E.,Madawalabu University |
Tesfaye K.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology |
Bekele E.,Madawalabu University
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011
Phenotypic and genetic diversity of ten improved lentil varieties of Ethiopia were assessed using nine agro-morphological characters and four ISSR primers. ANOVA of phenotypic data showed highly significant variation among the varieties for all traits. Number of pods and seeds, hundred seed weight, and number of secondary and primary branch showed high phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), while days to flowering, seed yield, plant height and days to maturity revealed low PCV. Ada'a, Chalew and R-186 were late in flowering and maturity, while Gudo was early flowering, but late maturing variety. Alemaya, Alemtena and Assano were early in flowering and maturity, while Chekol, EL-142 and Teshale were intermediate in flowering but early in maturity. The Euclidian distance between Ada'a and Assano was high, while the distance between Alemtena and Teshale was the least. Clustering analysis based on phenotypic data classified the varieties into two groups. ISSR analyses revealed that 75.93% of the amplified bands were polymorphic with average gene diversity (H) of 0.2734. Inter-varietal genetic distance between Gudo and Chekol was high, while that between Gudo and Alemaya was low. Clustering analysis based on ISSR marker also classified the varieties into two groups. The correlation (r =0.334) between morphological and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was significant. Results of the present study reveal the genetic variation between Ethiopian lentil varieties which would help in selection of varieties for specific agro-ecology and/or purpose, and for further breeding activities. © 2011 Academic Journals.