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Fernandez-Miranda G.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Perez De Castro I.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Carmena M.,University of Edinburgh | Aguirre-Portoles C.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2010

Aurora kinases are central regulators of mitotic-spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Aurora B is a member of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) with crucial functions in regulation of the attachment of kinetochores to microtubules and in cytokinesis. We report here that Aurora B contains a conserved SUMO modification motif within its kinase domain. Aurora B can bind SUMO peptides in vitro when bound to the IN-box domain of its CPC partner INCENP. Mutation of Lys207 to arginine (Aurora BK207R) impairs the formation of conjugates of Aurora B and SUMO in vivo. Expression of the SUMO-null form of Aurora B results in abnormal chromosome segregation and cytokinesis failure and it is not able to rescue mitotic defects in Aurora-B-knockout cells. These defects are accompanied by increased levels of the CPC on chromosome arms and defective centromeric function, as detected by decreased phosphorylation of the Aurora-B substrate CENP-A. The Aurora-B K207R mutant does not display reduced kinase activity, suggesting that functional defects are probably a consequence of the altered localization, rather than decreased intrinsic kinase activity. These data suggest that SUMOylation of Aurora B modulates its function, possibly by mediating the extraction of CPC complexes from chromosome arms during prometaphase. Source


Silva G.,Cellectis | Poirot L.,Cellectis | Galetto R.,Cellectis | Smith J.,Cellectis | And 3 more authors.
Current Gene Therapy | Year: 2011

The importance of safer approaches for gene therapy has been underscored by a series of severe adverse events (SAEs) observed in patients involved in clinical trials for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency Disease (SCID) and Chromic Granulomatous Disease (CGD). While a new generation of viral vectors is in the process of replacing the classical gamma-retrovirus-based approach, a number of strategies have emerged based on non-viral vectorization and/or targeted insertion aimed at achieving safer gene transfer. Currently, these methods display lower efficacies than viral transduction although many of them can yield more than 1% engineered cells in vitro. Nuclease-based approaches, wherein an endonuclease is used to trigger site-specific genome editing, can significantly increase the percentage of targeted cells. These methods therefore provide a real alternative to classical gene transfer as well as gene editing. However, the first endonuclease to be in clinic today is not used for gene transfer, but to inactivate a gene (CCR5) required for HIV infection. Here, we review these alternative approaches, with a special emphasis on meganucleases, a family of naturally occurring rare-cutting endonucleases, and speculate on their current and future potential. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Molina R.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

The enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA phosphodiester bonds has been widely studied, but the chemical reaction has not yet been observed. Here we follow the generation of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) by the Desulfurococcus mobilis homing endonuclease I-DmoI, trapping sequential stages of a two-metal-ion cleavage mechanism. We captured intermediates of the different catalytic steps, and this allowed us to watch the reaction by 'freezing' multiple states. We observed the successive entry of two metals involved in the reaction and the arrival of a third cation in a central position of the active site. This third metal ion has a crucial role, triggering the consecutive hydrolysis of the targeted phosphodiester bonds in the DNA strands and leaving its position once the DSB is generated. The multiple structures show the orchestrated conformational changes in the protein residues, nucleotides and metals during catalysis. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Source


Melo S.A.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | Melo S.A.,University of Porto | Moutinho C.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | Ropero S.,University of Alcala | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2010

The global impairment of mature microRNAs (miRNAs) is emerging as a common feature of human tumors. One interesting scenario is that defects in the nuclear export of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) might occur in transformed cells. Exportin 5 (XPO5) mediates pre-miRNA nuclear export and herein we demonstrate the presence of XPO5-inactivating mutations in a subset of human tumors with microsatellite instability. The XPO5 genetic defect traps pre-miRNAs in the nucleus, reduces miRNA processing, and diminishes miRNA-target inhibition. The XPO5 mutant form lacks a C-terminal region that contributes to the formation of the pre-miRNA/XPO5/Ran-GTP ternary complex and pre-miRNAs accumulate in the nucleus. Most importantly, the restoration of XPO5 functions reverses the impaired export of pre-miRNAs and has tumor-suppressor features. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Molina R.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group | Stella S.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group | Stella S.,Copenhagen University | Redondo P.,Macromolecular Crystallography Group | And 8 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

The enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA phosphodiester bonds has been widely studied, but the chemical reaction has not yet been observed. Here we follow the generation of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) by the Desulfurococcus mobilis homing endonuclease I-DmoI, trapping sequential stages of a two-metal-ion cleavage mechanism. We captured intermediates of the different catalytic steps, and this allowed us to watch the reaction by 'freezing' multiple states. We observed the successive entry of two metals involved in the reaction and the arrival of a third cation in a central position of the active site. This third metal ion has a crucial role, triggering the consecutive hydrolysis of the targeted phosphodiester bonds in the DNA strands and leaving its position once the DSB is generated. The multiple structures show the orchestrated conformational changes in the protein residues, nucleotides and metals during catalysis. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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