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Gasan dong, South Korea

Park J.H.,CHA Medical University | Woo J.H.,Macrogen Inc. | Shim S.H.,CHA Medical University | Yang S.-J.,Macrogen Inc. | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics

Background: While conventional G-banded karyotyping still remains a gold standard in prenatal genetic diagnoses, the widespread adoption of array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array CGH) technology for postnatal genetic diagnoses has led to increasing interest in the use of this same technology for prenatal diagnosis. We have investigated the value of our own designed DNA chip as a prenatal diagnostic tool for detecting submicroscopic deletions/duplications and chromosome aneuploidies.Methods: We designed a target bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based aCGH platform (MacArray™ M-chip), which specifically targets submicroscopic deletions/duplications for 26 known genetic syndromes of medical significance observed prenatally. To validate the DNA chip, we obtained genomic DNA from 132 reference materials generated from patients with 22 genetic diseases and 94 clinical amniocentesis samples obtained for karyotyping.Results: In the 132 reference materials, all known genomic alterations were successfully identified. In the 94 clinical samples that were also subjected to conventional karyotyping, three cases of balanced chromosomal aberrations were not detected by aCGH. However, we identified eight cases of microdeletions in the Yq11.23 chromosomal region that were not found by conventional karyotyping. This region harbors the DAZ gene, and deletions may lead to non-obstructive spermatogenesis.Conclusions: We have successfully designed and applied a BAC-based aCGH platform for prenatal diagnosis. This platform can be used in conjunction with conventional karyotyping and will provide rapid and accurate diagnoses for the targeted genomic regions while eliminating the need to interpret clinically-uncertain genomic regions. © 2010 Park et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kwon N.-J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Kwon N.-J.,Macrogen Inc. | Park H.-S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Jung S.,Konkuk University | And 2 more authors.
Eukaryotic Cell

Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. Here, we characterized ricA, which encodes a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor for G proteins in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both species, ricA mRNA accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. The deletion of ricA results in severely impaired colony growth and the total (for A. nidulans) or near (for A. fumigatus) absence of asexual sporulation (conidiation). The overexpression (OE) of the A. fumigatus ricA gene (AfricA) restores growth and conidiation in the ΔAnricA mutant to some extent, indicating partial conservation of RicA function in Aspergillus. A series of double mutant analyses revealed that the removal of RgsA (an RGS protein of the GanB Gα subunit), but not sfgA, flbA, rgsB, or rgsC, restored vegetative growth and conidiation in ΔAnricA. Furthermore, we found that RicA can physically interact with GanB in yeast and in vitro. Moreover, the presence of two copies or OE of pkaA suppresses the profound defects caused by ΔAnricA, indicating that RicA-mediated growth and developmental signaling is primarily through GanB and PkaA in A. nidulans. Despite the lack of conidiation, brlA and vosA mRNAs accumulated to normal levels in the ΔricA mutant. In addition, mutants overexpressing fluG or brlA (OEfluG or OEbrlA) failed to restore development in the ΔAnricA mutant. These findings suggest that the commencement of asexual development requires unknown RicA-mediated signaling input in A. nidulans. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Ju Y.S.,Seoul National University | Ju Y.S.,Macrogen Inc. | Lee W.-C.,Seoul National University | Shin J.-Y.,Seoul National University | And 11 more authors.
Genome Research

The identification of the molecular events that drive cancer transformation is essential to the development of targeted agents that improve the clinical outcome of lung cancer. Many studies have reported genomic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) over the past decade; however, the molecular pathogenesis of >40%of NSCLCs is still unknown. To identify new molecular targets in NSCLCs, we performed the combined analysis of massively parallel whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing for cancer and paired normal tissue of a 33-yr-old lung adenocarcinoma patient, who is a never-smoker and has no familial cancer history. The cancer showed no known driver mutation in EGFR or KRAS and no EML4-ALK fusion. Here we report a novel fusion gene between KIF5B and the RET proto-oncogene caused by a pericentric inversion of 10p11.22-q11.21. This fusion gene overexpresses chimeric RET receptor tyrosine kinase, which could spontaneously induce cellular transformation. We identified the KIF5B-RET fusion in two more cases out of 20 primary lung adenocarcinomas in the replication study.Our data demonstrate that a subset ofNSCLCs could be caused by a fusion of KIF5B and RET, andsuggest the chimeric oncogene as a promising molecular target for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Han W.,Seoul National University | Kim K.-Y.,Dong - A University | Yang S.-J.,Macrogen Inc. | Noh D.-Y.,Seoul National University | And 2 more authors.

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway genes may modulate DNA repair capacity and increase susceptibility to breast cancer (BC). A case-control study was conducted by evaluating genes involved in DNA repair to identify polymorphisms associated with BC. METHODS: The 384 SNPs of 38 candidate genes were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate method. Genotypes were determined in a case-control study that consisted of 346 BC patients and 361 controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression models. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, family history of BC, and body mass index were used. RESULTS: Gene-gene interaction analysis among the DNA repair pathway genes showed significant effects on BC risk. ERCC2 rs50872 (TC genotype) in combination with XPA rs2808668 (TC genotype) and rs1800975 (AG genotype) was strongly associated with an increased risk of BC (P =.0004 and.0002, P Bonferroni =.023 and.014, respectively). Moreover, the T-G (including rs2808668 and rs1800975) haplotype in XPA combined with the ERCC2 T allele in rs50872 carriers was also associated with additive risk effect of BC (odds ratios: 2.58, 2.62, and 3.49, respectively). CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in DNA repair genes involved in NER mechanisms increased the risk of BC development. These results suggested that a stronger combined effect of SNPs via gene-gene interaction may help to predict BC risk. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Source

Jeong J.-Y.,Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute | Yim H.-S.,Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute | Ryu J.-Y.,Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute | Lee H.-S.,Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

We developed one-step sequence- and ligation-independent cloning (SLIC) as a simple, cost-effective, time-saving, and versatile cloning method. Highly efficient and directional cloning can be achieved by direct bacterial transformation 2.5 min after mixing any linearized vector, an insert(s) prepared by PCR, and T4 DNA polymerase in a tube at room temperature. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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