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Choi B.-O.,Ewha Womans University | Koo S.K.,National Institute of Health | Park M.-H.,National Institute of Health | Rhee H.,Macrogen Bioinformatics Center | And 9 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2012

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neuropathies and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder with variable inheritance modes. As several molecules have been reported to have therapeutic effects on CMT, depending on the underlying genetic causes, exact genetic diagnostics have become very important for executing personalized therapy. Whole-exome sequencing has recently been introduced as an available method to identify rare or novel genetic defects from genetic disorders. Particularly, CMT is a model disease to apply exome sequencing because more than 50 genes (loci) are involved in its development with weak genotype-phenotype correlation. This study performed the exome sequencing in 25 unrelated CMT patients who revealed neither 17p12 duplication/deletion nor several major CMT genes. This study identified eight causative heterozygous mutations (32%). This detection rate seems rather high because each sample was tested before the study for major genetic causes. Therefore, this study suggests that the exome sequencing can be a highly exact, rapid, and economical molecular diagnostic tool for CMT patients who are tested for major genetic causes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

Lim J.S.,KAIST | Kim W.-I.,KAIST | Kang H.-C.,Pediatric Epilepsy Clinics | Kang H.-C.,Yonsei University | And 17 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2015

Focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) is a sporadic developmental malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by dysmorphic neurons, dyslamination and medically refractory epilepsy. It has been hypothesized that FCD is caused by somatic mutations in affected regions. Here, we used deep whole-exome sequencing (read depth, 412-668×) validated by site-specific amplicon sequencing (100-347,499×) in paired brain-blood DNA from four subjects with FCDII and uncovered a de novo brain somatic mutation, mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) c.7280T>C (p.Leu2427Pro) in two subjects. Deep sequencing of the MTOR gene in an additional 73 subjects with FCDII using hybrid capture and PCR amplicon sequencing identified eight different somatic missense mutations found in multiple brain tissue samples of ten subjects. The identified mutations accounted for 15.6% of all subjects with FCDII studied (12 of 77). The identified mutations induced the hyperactivation of mTOR kinase. Focal cortical expression of mutant MTOR by in utero electroporation in mice was sufficient to disrupt neuronal migration and cause spontaneous seizures and cytomegalic neurons. Inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin suppressed cytomegalic neurons and epileptic seizures. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that brain somatic activating mutations in MTOR cause FCD and identifies mTOR as a treatment target for intractable epilepsy in FCD. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Lee D.-S.,Seoul National University | Shin J.-Y.,Seoul National University | Shin J.-Y.,Macrogen Inc. | Tonge P.D.,Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute | And 34 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells involves a dynamic rearrangement of the epigenetic landscape. To characterize this epigenomic roadmap, we have performed MethylC-seq, ChIP-seq (H3K4/K27/K36me3) and RNA-Seq on samples taken at several time points during murine secondary reprogramming as part of Project Grandiose. We find that DNA methylation gain during reprogramming occurs gradually, while loss is achieved only at the ESC-like state. Binding sites of activated factors exhibit focal demethylation during reprogramming, while ESC-like pluripotent cells are distinguished by extension of demethylation to the wider neighbourhood. We observed that genes with CpG-rich promoters demonstrate stable low methylation and strong engagement of histone marks, whereas genes with CpG-poor promoters are safeguarded by methylation. Such DNA methylation-driven control is the key to the regulation of ESC-pluripotency genes, including Dppa4, Dppa5a and Esrrb. These results reveal the crucial role that DNA methylation plays as an epigenetic switch driving somatic cells to pluripotency. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Lee H.-Y.,Kangwon National University | Han S.-S.,Kangwon National University | Rhee H.,Macrogen Bioinformatics Center | Park J.H.,Macrogen Bioinformatics Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA species that constitute a class of non-coding RNAs, and are emerging as key regulators of gene expression. Since each miRNA is capable of regulating multiple genes, miRNAs are attractive markers for studies of coordinated gene expression. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression profiling using a massively parallel sequencing technique to compare non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue and normal lung tissue. Lung cancer tissue and normal lung tissue were obtained from nine NSCLC patients. RNA isolated from these samples was processed using RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) and the HiSeq 2000 system. Differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were analyzed using a t-test. We selected target pairs that showed a negative correlation among significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and their putative target mRNAs using miRBase Targets. The differences in the expression levels of 222 miRNAs and 1,597 genes were statistically significant, as indicated by an absolute fold change ≥1.5 and P<0.05. miR-577, miR-301b, miR-944, miR-891a and miR-615-3p were generally upregulated, and miR-338-3p was generally downregulated. miRNA-mRNA target pair analysis revealed that 49 miRNAs had 696 target mRNAs. There were significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between lung cancer and normal tissue. Further investigation of miRNAs and their target genes is warranted to better understand NSCLC.

Han S.-S.,Kangwon National University | Kim W.J.,Kangwon National University | Hong Y.,Kangwon National University | Hong S.-H.,Kangwon National University | And 15 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

Introduction: The development of reliable gene expression profiling technology increasingly impacts our understanding of lung cancer biology. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the transcriptomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and normal lung tissues and to investigate expression in lung cancer tissues. Methods: We enrolled 88 male patients (mean age, 61.2 years) with NSCLC. RNA-Seq was performed on 88 pairs of NSCLC tumor tissue and non-tumor tissue from 54 patients with adenocarcinoma and 34 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate differential candidate gene expression in a different NSCLC group. Results: RNA-Seq produced 25.41×106 (±8.90×106) reads in NSCLC tissues and 24.70×106 (±4.70×106) reads in normal lung tissues [mean (±standard deviation)]. Among the genes expressed in both tissues, 335 were upregulated and 728 were downregulated ≥2-fold (p<0.001). Four upregulated genes - CBX3, GJB2, CRABP2, and DSP - not previously reported in lung cancer were studied further. Their altered expression was verified by immunohistochemistry in a different set of NSCLC tissues (n=154). CBX3 was positive in 90.3% (139 cases) of the samples; GJB2, in 22.7% (35 cases); CRABP2, in 72.1% (111 cases); and DSP, in 17.5% (27 cases). The positive rate of CRABP2 was higher in adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma (p<0.01). Conclusions: CBX3 and CRABP2 expression was markedly increased in lung cancer tissues and especially CRABP2 may be promising candidate genes in lung adenocarcinoma. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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