Macro Innovations Ltd

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Macro Innovations Ltd

Cambridge, United Kingdom
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Smith R.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Thyer L.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Ward E.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Meacci E.,University of Florence | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease of multifactorial aetiology characterized by immune system dysfunction, widespread inflammation, multisystemic neuropathology and persistent pain. Given the central role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the effects of a potent modulator of the immune system in in vitro and in vivo models that could help clarifying its role and indications in ME/CFS treatment. To this end, we studied the effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (also designated as Gc- Macrophage Activating Factor or (GcMAF)) on human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) and on the persistent pain induced by osteoarticular damage in rats. GcMAF at pM concentration increased neuronal cell viability and metabolism through increased mitochondrial enzyme activity. These effects were accompanied by cAMP formation and by morphological changes that were representative of neuronal differentiation. We hypothesize that these effects are to be ascribed to the interconnection between the GcMAF and Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) signalling pathways. The results presented here confirm at the experimental level the therapeutic effects of GcMAF in ME/CFS and elucidate the mechanisms of action through which GcMAF might be responsible for such therapeutic effects. © 2013 Science Publication.


Ruggiero M.,University of Florence | Ruggiero M.,Immuno Biotech Ltd | Ruggiero M.,California State University, Channel Islands | Ward E.,Macro Innovations Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2014

Background: Oleic Acid (OA) has been shown to have anticancer properties mediated by interaction with proteins such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrins. Therefore, we synthesized complexes of OA and Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) that inhibits per se cancer cell proliferation and metastatic potential. We hypothesised that OA-GcMAF complexes could exploit the anticancer properties of both OA and GcMAF in a synergistic manner. We postulated that the stimulating effects of GcMAF on macrophages might lead to release of nitric oxide (NO). Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally-produced GcMAF, Vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Results: Measuring the tumour by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed a decrease of tumour volume of about 25%. Conclusion: These observations demonstrate that OA, GcMAF and NO can be properly combined and specifically delivered to advanced cancer patients with significant effects on immune system stimulation and tumour volume reduction avoiding harmful side-effects.


Thyer L.,Macro Innovations Ltd. | Ward E.,Macro Innovations Ltd. | Smith R.,Macro Innovations Ltd. | Branca J.J.V.,University of Florence | And 5 more authors.
OncoImmunology | Year: 2013

α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophageactivating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, noncontrolled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy © 2013 Landes Bioscience.


Thyer L.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Ward E.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Smith R.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Branca J.J.V.,University of Florence | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013

The de-Glycosylated vitamin D binding protein is a powerful Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) that shows multiple biological effects that could be exploited in the immunotherapy of tumours, viral infections and autism. Here we report the observation of a series of clinical cases describing the results obtained administering highly purified GcMAF to patients with diverse types of chronic diseases. These are heterogeneous and refer to patients with different types of diseases at different stages. In some cases, patients underwent other complementary treatments such as stem cell infusion or administration of supplements. In patients harbouring tumours, GcMAF treatment was initiated at late stages of tumour progression. Therefore, since this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when ascribing cause and effect to any treatment outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was robust and certain trends emerge evident. In all cases (n = 7), GcMAF subcutaneous injections were associated with improvement of clinical conditions. No adverse side effects were reported. The observation reported here confirm and extend the results previously presented by several Authors and open the way to further trials aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF in the immunotherapy of chronic diseases. © 2013 Science Publication.


Ward E.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Smith R.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Branca J.J.V.,University of Florence | Noakes D.,Immuno Biotech Ltd | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Immunology | Year: 2014

Proteins highly represented in milk such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin bind Oleic Acid (OA) to form complexes with selective anti-tumor activity. A protein present in milk, colostrum and blood, vitamin D binding protein is the precursor of a potent Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) and in analogy with other OA-protein complexes, we proposed that OA-GcMAF could demonstrate a greater immunotherapeutic activity than that of GcMAF alone. We describe a preliminary experience treating patients with advanced cancers, often labelled as "incurable" with an integrative immunotherapy centred on OA-GcMAF. Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally produced GcMAF, vitamin D3 and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. When the primary tumor or a metastasis could be measured by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed, on average, a decrease of tumor volume of approximately 25% in a week. We also observed a consistent increase in splenic blood flow that was interpreted in the context of generalised immune system activation and allowed to assess the degree of responsiveness of the individual patient. The results reported here are consistent with the results previously described in the experimental animal harbouring a human hepatocellular carcinoma as well as with the results reported for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. OA-protein complexes are bound to play a leading role in cancer therapy thanks to selectivity of antitumoral effects, absence of any side effects, safety and oral availability. We hypothesise that OA-GcMAF, combines the known anticancer effects OA-protein complexes with the well established immune stimulating effects of GcMAF. © 2014 Science Publication.


PubMed | Macro Innovations Ltd, University of Florence, Naturheilzentrum and Immuno Biotech Ltd
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2014

Oleic Acid (OA) has been shown to have anticancer properties mediated by interaction with proteins such as -lactalbumin and lactoferrins. Therefore, we synthesized complexes of OA and Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) that inhibits per se cancer cell proliferation and metastatic potential. We hypothesised that OA-GcMAF complexes could exploit the anticancer properties of both OA and GcMAF in a synergistic manner. We postulated that the stimulating effects of GcMAF on macrophages might lead to release of nitric oxide (NO).Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally-produced GcMAF, Vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid.Measuring the tumour by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed a decrease of tumour volume of about 25%.These observations demonstrate that OA, GcMAF and NO can be properly combined and specifically delivered to advanced cancer patients with significant effects on immune system stimulation and tumour volume reduction avoiding harmful side-effects.


Thyer L.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Ward E.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Smith R.,Macro Innovations Ltd | Fiore M.G.,University of Florence | And 6 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2013

The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This al1ows 1,25(OH)(2)D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects.

Loading Macro Innovations Ltd collaborators
Loading Macro Innovations Ltd collaborators