North Ryde, Australia
North Ryde, Australia

Macquarie University is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Sydney. It is the fourth largest university in Sydney.The university comprises five faculties. Also affiliated with the university are several research centres, schools and institutes including the Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Australian Proteome Analysis Facility, the Institute of Human Cognition and Brain Science, the Macquarie University Research Park and the Macquarie University Hospital. At present, the university offers 87 undergraduate courses and 124 different postgraduate courses to students. The university is governed by a 17-member Council.Macquarie is ranked in the top 40 universities in the Asia-Pacific region and within Australia's top ten universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the U.S. News & World Report Rankings and the QS World University Rankings. According to the QS World University Rankings, Macquarie is the highest ranked university in Australia under the age of 50, it is ranked 18th in the world. Macquarie is ranked in the 201st-300th bracket and 8th-9th in Australia in the 2013 Academic Ranking of World Universities. The university is also ranked among the national top five recipients of relative research income. Macquarie University also has the largest student exchange programme in Australia.Researchers at Macquarie University, David James Skellern and Neil Weste, and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation helped develop Wi-Fi. David James Skellern has been a major donor to the University through the Skellern Family Trust. Macquarie University's linguistics department developed the Macquarie Dictionary. The dictionary is regarded as the standard reference on Australian English. Wikipedia.

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Bedford G.O.,Macquarie University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2013

Coconut, oil, and date palms are important crops in the tropics and are attacked by dynastids that cause loss of production or death of hosts. Knowledge of their breeding sites has been extended since a previous review in 1980. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has potential as a biopesticide against immature stages in friable breeding sites. The molecular biology and ultrastructure of Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus (OrNV), disseminated by adults, have been studied, and this pathogen can reduce O. rhinoceros populations and damage when introduced into new locations, especially where damage had been high. New PCR techniques may enable reliable quantification of dosages ingested and hence virulence of different isolates. Male-produced aggregation pheromones have been identified in several species, for which they may have management potential, having been used commercially for trapping O. rhinoceros in oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia, and tested against O. monoceros in Africa. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Rapee R.M.,Macquarie University
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review | Year: 2012

Family variables are thought to play a key role in a wide variety of psychopathology according to many theories. Yet, specific models of the development of anxiety disorders place little emphasis on general family factors despite clear evidence that anxiety runs in families. The current review examines evidence for the involvement of a number of family-related variables in the development of anxiety disorders as well as the importance of families in their management. Evidence across most areas is shown to be weak and inconsistent, with the one exception being an extensive literature on the role of parenting in the development of anxiety. There is also currently little evidence that family factors have a strong role to play in the treatment of anxiety, aside from research demonstrating the value of parents and partners as non-critical supports in therapy. The promises and hints in the literature, combined with the currently inconsistent methods, suggest that considerably more research is needed to determine whether specific family factors may yet be shown to play a key role in the development and management of anxiety disorders. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gillings M.R.,Macquarie University
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2014

Integrons are versatile gene acquisition systems commonly found in bacterial genomes. They are ancient elements that are a hot spot for genomic complexity, generating phenotypic diversity and shaping adaptive responses. In recent times, they have had a major role in the acquisition, expression, and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Assessing the ongoing threats posed by integrons requires an understanding of their origins and evolutionary history. This review examines the functions and activities of integrons before the antibiotic era. It shows how antibiotic use selected particular integrons from among the environmental pool of these elements, such that integrons carrying resistance genes are now present in the majority of Gram-negative pathogens. Finally, it examines the potential consequences of widespread pollution with the novel integrons that have been assembled via the agency of human antibiotic use and speculates on the potential uses of integrons as platforms for biotechnology. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Gillings M.R.,Macquarie University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2013

The widespread use and abuse of antibiotic therapy has evolutionary and ecological consequences, some of which are only just beginning to be examined. One well known consequence is the fixation of mutations and lateral gene transfer (LGT) events that confer antibiotic resistance. Sequential selection events, driven by different classes of antibiotics, have resulted in the assembly of diverse resistance determinants and mobile DNAs into novel genetic elements of ever-growing complexity and flexibility. These novel plasmids, integrons, and genomic islands have now become fixed at high frequency in diverse cell lineages by human antibiotic use. Consequently they can be regarded as xenogenetic pollutants, analogous to xenobiotic compounds, but with the critical distinction that they replicate rather than degrade when released to pollute natural environments. Antibiotics themselves must also be regarded as pollutants, since human production overwhelms natural synthesis, and a major proportion of ingested antibiotic is excreted unchanged into waste streams. Such antibiotic pollutants have non-target effects, raising the general rates of mutation, recombination, and LGT in all the microbiome, and simultaneously providing the selective force to fix such changes. This has the consequence of recruiting more genes into the resistome and mobilome, and of increasing the overlap between these two components of microbial genomes. Thus the human use and environmental release of antibiotics is having second order effects on the microbial world, because these small molecules act as drivers of bacterial evolution. Continued pollution with both xenogenetic elements and the selective agents that fix such elements in populations has potentially adverse consequences for human welfare. © 2013 Gillings.

The initial (200-175 Ma) breakup of Pangea was marked by the emplacement of the Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) of Karoo-Ferrar-SE Australia (KFS) in the back-arc of Panthalassan subduction and by the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) between Africa and the Americas. Seafloor spreading 190-180. Ma (Stage 1) about the CAMP split Pangea into northern (Laurasia) and southern (Gondwanaland) parts. Subsequent stages at 167 Ma (2), 147 Ma (3), 130 Ma (4), 118 Ma (5), and 83 Ma (6) split conjugate Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Zealandia from Antarctica. Here I review the reconstruction of Antarctica in Gondwanaland. First, seafloor spreading is unwound to re-unite the continent-ocean boundaries (COBs), then the extended (rifted) crust about the suture is restored to its original thickness. A comprehensive review of the U-Pb zircon geochronology of the reconstructed margins of Antarctica and its conjugates shows that certain coeval structures are aligned across the suture. Cross structures of high-order spatial continuity and age correlation are the Lambert-Mahanadi Rift, Pranhita-Godavari-Robert Glacier trend, Gawler-Adélie Craton, and western part of the Gondwanide Fold Belt. Cross structures of high-order age correlation but low structural continuity or alignment are, from Africa to Antarctica, the East African-Antarctic Orogen, the Natal and Maud Belts, the Umkondo Group-Ritscherflya Supergroup and LIP, and the Kalahari-Grunehogna Craton; from Antarctica to Zealandia, the Ross-Western and Amundsen-Eastern Provinces; and from Africa through Antarctica to Australia the KFS LIP. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Stevenson R.J.,Macquarie University
Psychological Bulletin | Year: 2014

The brain binds inputs from multiple senses to enhance our ability to identify key events in the environment. Understanding this process is based mainly on data from the major senses (vision and audition), yet compelling examples of binding occur in other domains. When we eat, in fact taste, smell, and touch combine to form flavor. This process can be so complete that most people fail to recognize that smell contributes to flavor. The flavor percept has other features: (a) it feels located in the mouth, even though smell is detected in the nose and taste on the tongue, and (b) it feels continuous, yet smell is delivered in pulses to the nose during eating. Furthermore, tastes can modify smell perception and vice versa. Current explanations of these binding-related phenomena are explored. Preattentive processing provides a well-supported account of taste-to-tongue binding. Learning between taste and smell can explain perceptual interactions between these senses and perhaps localization of smell to the mouth. Attentional processes may also be important, especially given their role in binding the major senses. Two are specifically examined. One claims that the failure to recognize smell's role in flavor stems from the role of involuntary attention's "defaulting" to the mouth and taste (i.e., binding by ignoring). Another claims that taste and smell form a common attentional channel in the mouth, in effect becoming one sense. Except for preattentive processing, the mechanisms involved in flavor binding differ markedly from those proposed for the major senses. This distinction may result from functional differences, with flavor supporting future food choice but not current identification. © 2013 American Psychological Association.

Progress in identifying the neural correlates of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) experienced by patients with schizophrenia has not fulfilled its promise to lead to new methods of treatments. Given the existence of a large number of such patients who have AVHs that are refractory to traditional treatments, there is the urgent need for the development of new effective interventions. This article proposes that the technique of neurofeedback may be an appropriate method to allow the translation of pure research findings from AVH-research into a clinical intervention. Neurofeedback is a method through which individuals can self-regulate their neural activity in specific neural regions/frequencies, following operant conditioning of their intentional manipulation of visually presented real-time feedback of their neural activity. Four empirically testable hypotheses are proposed as to how neurofeedback may be employed to therapeutic effect in patients with AVHs. © 2012 The Author.

Rapee R.M.,Macquarie University
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2013

Background: There are few evaluations of very early intervention for the prevention of internalising disorders and those that exist generally evaluate outcomes to a maximum of 12 months. The current study evaluated the very long term effects (11 years) of a brief internalising prevention program presented to parents of preschool aged children. Methods: The original sample comprised 146 preschool-aged children who scored high on measures of inhibited temperament. Half of the parents were given a brief educational program (six-sessions) to assist them to help their children reduce anxiousness. Over 70% of the original sample (n = 103) was assessed for the current study, which occurred when the sample was approximately 15 years. They were assessed on current diagnoses of anxiety and depression, as well as symptoms of anxiety, depression, negative thoughts, and life interference. Results: Compared with controls, girls whose parents had been through the early intervention program showed significantly fewer internalising disorders, maternally reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported life interference, and trends toward lower self-reported anxiety symptoms and self reported thoughts of loss and failure. Boys showed few differences. Conclusions: A brief early intervention program delivered to parents of preschool-aged children who are at risk for later internalising distress shows lasting benefits for girls into the high-risk period of middle adolescence. Given the low costs associated with this program, these results show promise for strong public health benefits. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Fryirs K.,Macquarie University
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms | Year: 2013

The concept of the sediment delivery problem was introduced into the literature in 1983 by Des Walling. This concept describes how only a fraction of sediment eroded within a catchment will reach the basin outlet and be represented as sediment yield, and that sediment storage mechanisms operating within a catchment explain this discrepancy. Since this paper was published, geomorphologists have been examining in great detail the fate of sediment eroded from the landsurface, and the pathways and timeframes of sediment transport and storage in catchments. However, to fully understand the internal dynamics of sediment flux requires a 'fresh look at the sediment delivery problem'. A framework is required that can incorporate the various processes involved in sediment movement from source areas through a basin to its outlet, and can take account of the spatial distribution of, and timeframes over which, these processes operate. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis of catchment (dis)connectivity that incorporates both spatial and temporal variability in the operation of the sediment cascade. This approach examines where blockages occur to disrupt these longitudinal, lateral and vertical linkages in catchments. Depending on the position of blockages (termed buffers, barriers and blankets), and their sediment residence time, various parts of a catchment may be actively contributing sediment to the sediment cascade and be switched on, or inactive and switched off. This paper discusses how such a framework can be used to model response times to disturbance and explain the manifestation of geomorphic change in catchments. The paper then highlights challenges geomorphologists face in applying such a framework to understand the internal dynamics of the catchment sediment cascades, and forecast how environmental change might affect the operation of sediment fluxes into the future. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Alroy J.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Alroy J.,Macquarie University
Science | Year: 2010

The fossil record demonstrates that each major taxonomic group has a consistent net rate of diversification and a limit to its species richness. It has been thought that long-term changes in the dominance of major taxonomic groups can be predicted from these characteristics. However, new analyses show that diversity limits may rise or fall in response to adaptive radiations or extinctions. These changes are idiosyncratic and occur at different times in each taxa. For example, the end-Permian mass extinction permanently reduced the diversity of important, previously dominant groups such as brachiopods and crinoids. The current global crisis may therefore permanently alter the biosphere's taxonomic composition by changing the rules of evolution.

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