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Menssen A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Menssen A.,Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology | Haupl T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Sittinger M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Adipogenesis is the developmental process by which mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) differentiate into pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. The aim of the study was to analyze the developmental strategies of human bone marrow MSC developing into adipocytes over a defined time scale. Here we were particularly interested in differentially expressed transcription factors and biochemical pathways. We studied genome-wide gene expression profiling of human MSC based on an adipogenic differentiation experiment with five different time points (day 0, 1, 3, 7 and 17), which was designed and performed in reference to human fat tissue. For data processing and selection of adipogenic candidate genes, we used the online database SiPaGene for Affymetrix microarray expression data.Results: The mesenchymal stem cell character of human MSC cultures was proven by cell morphology, by flow cytometry analysis and by the ability of the cells to develop into the osteo-, chondro- and adipogenic lineage. Moreover we were able to detect 184 adipogenic candidate genes (85 with increased, 99 with decreased expression) that were differentially expressed during adipogenic development of MSC and/or between MSC and fat tissue in a highly significant way (p < 0.00001). Subsequently, groups of up- or down-regulated genes were formed and analyzed with biochemical and cluster tools. Among the 184 genes, we identified already known transcription factors such as PPARG, C/EBPA and RTXA. Several of the genes could be linked to corresponding biochemical pathways like the adipocyte differentiation, adipocytokine signalling, and lipogenesis pathways. We also identified new candidate genes possibly related to adipogenesis, such as SCARA5, coding for a receptor with a putative transmembrane domain and a collagen-like domain, and MRAP, encoding an endoplasmatic reticulum protein.Conclusions: Comparing differential gene expression profiles of human MSC and native fat cells or tissue allowed us to establish a comprehensive differential kinetic gene expression network of adipogenesis. Based on this, we identified known and unknown genes and biochemical pathways that may be relevant for adipogenic differentiation. Our results encourage further and more focused studies on the functional relevance of particular adipogenic candidate genes. © 2011 Menssen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Faddy H.M.,Red Cross | Faddy H.M.,University of Queensland | Fryk J.J.,Red Cross | Prow N.A.,University of Queensland | And 9 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND Arboviruses, including dengue (DENV 1-4), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Ross River (RRV), are emerging viruses that are a risk for transfusion safety globally. An approach for managing this risk is pathogen inactivation, such as the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system. We investigated the ability of this system to inactivate the above mentioned arboviruses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS DENV 1-4, CHIKV, or RRV were spiked into buffy coat (BC)-derived platelet (PLT) concentrates in additive solution and treated with the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system at the following doses: 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 J/cm2 (standard dose). Pre- and posttreatment samples were taken for each dose, and the level of viral infectivity was determined. RESULTS At the standard ultraviolet C (UVC) dose (0.2 J/cm2), viral inactivation of at least 4.43, 6.34, and 5.13 log or more, was observed for DENV 1-4, CHIKV, and RRV, respectively. A dose dependency in viral inactivation was observed with increasing UVC doses. CONCLUSIONS Our study has shown that DENV, CHIKV, and RRV, spiked into BC-derived PLT concentrates, were inactivated by the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system to the limit of detection of our assay, suggesting that this system could contribute to the safety of PLT concentrates with respect to these emerging arboviruses. © 2016 AABB. Source

Johnson L.,Red Cross | Hyland R.,Red Cross | Tan S.,Red Cross | Tolksdorf F.,Macopharma International GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy | Year: 2016

Background: The THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system uses shortwave ultraviolet C light (UVC, 254 nm) to inactivate pathogens in platelet components. Plasma carryover influences pathogen inactivation and platelet quality following treatment. The plasma carryover in the standard platelets produced by our institution are below the intended specification (<30%). Methods: A pool and split study was carried out comparing untreated and UVC-treated platelets with <30% plasma carryover (n = 10 pairs). This data was compared to components that met specifications (>30% plasma). The platelets were tested over storage for in vitro quality. Results: Platelet metabolism was accelerated following UVC treatment, as demonstrated by increased glucose consumption and lactate production. UVC treatment caused increased externalization of phosphatidylserine on platelets and microparticles, activation of the GPIIb/IIIa receptor (PAC-1 binding), and reduced hypotonic shock response. Platelet function, as measured with thrombelastogram, was not affected by UVC treatment. Components with <30% plasma were similar to those meeting specification with the exception of enhanced glycolytic metabolism. Conclusion: This in vitro analysis demonstrates that treatment of platelets with <30% plasma carryover with the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system affects some aspects of platelet metabolism and activation, although in vitro platelet function was not negatively impacted. This study also provides evidence that the treatment specifications of plasma carryover could be extended to below 30%. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. All rights reserved. Source

Titchmarsh L.,University of Cambridge | Zeh C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Verpoort T.,MACOPHARMA | Allain J.-P.,University of Cambridge | Lee H.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

In order to limit the interference of HIV-1 cellular nucleic acids in estimating viral load (VL), the feasibility of leukodepletion of a small whole-blood (WB) volume to eliminate only leukocyte cell content was investigated, using a selection of filters. The efficacy of leukocyte filtration was evaluated by counting, CD45 quantitative PCR, and HIV-1 DNA quantification. Plasma HIV-1 was tested by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. A specific, miniaturized filter was developed and tested for leukocyte and plasma virus retention, WB sample dilution, and filtration parameters in HIV-1-spiked WB samples. This device proved effective to retain >99.9% of white blood cells in 100 μl of WB without affecting plasma VL. The Samba sample preparation chemistry was adapted to use a leukodepleted WB sample for VL monitoring using the point-of-care Samba-1 semiautomated system. The clinical performance of the assay was evaluated by testing 207 consecutive venous EDTA WB samples from HIV-1-infected patients attending a CD4 testing clinic. Most patients were on antiretroviral treatment (ART), but their VL status was unknown. Compared to the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test, the new Samba assay had a concordance of 96.5%. The use of the Samba system with a VL test for WB might contribute to HIV-1 ART management and reduce loss-to-follow-up rates in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Lescoutra-Etchegaray N.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Jaffre N.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Sumian C.,MACOPHARMA | Durand V.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | And 6 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Analysis of archived appendix samples reveals that one in 2000 individuals in the United Kingdom may carry the infectious prion protein associated with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), raising questions about the risk of transfusion transmission from apparently healthy carriers. Blood leukoreduction shows limited efficiency against prions. Therefore, in absence of antemortem diagnostic tests, prion removal filters, including the P-Capt filter were designed to improve blood transfusion safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the performances of two filters, the P-Capt and one prototype (PMC#005), with blood-borne infectivity in two independent experiments. Blood was drawn twice from prion-infected macaques. Corresponding RBCCs were prepared according to two different procedures: in Study A, the leukoreduction step was followed by the filtration through the P-Capt. In Study B, the leukoreduction and prion removal were performed simultaneously through the PMC#005. For each study, two groups of three animals were transfused twice with samples before or after filtration. RESULTS: Among the six macaques transfused with nonfiltered samples, five developed neurologic signs but only four exhibited peripheral detectable protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) accumulation. In Study A, the three animals transfused with P-Capt-filtered samples remain asymptomatic and devoid of PrPres in lymph node biopsies 6 years after the transfusion. In Study B, one animal transfused with PMC#005-filtered samples developed vCJD. CONCLUSION: After 5 to 6 years of progress, this ongoing study provides encouraging results on the prion blood removal performances of the P-Capt filter in macaques, an utmost relevant model for human prion diseases. © 2015 AABB. Source

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