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Liang P.-I.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Chang S.-T.,National Tainan Institute of Nursing | Lin M.-Y.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Hsieh Y.-C.,Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2014

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of follicular helper T-cell origin and is rare in Taiwan. There are overlapping features of AITL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular growth pattern (PTCL-F). Around one fifth of PTCL-F exhibits t (5; 9) (q33; q22)/ITK-SYK chromosomal translocation, which is essentially absent in AITL. We retrospectively investigated 35 cases of AITL from Taiwan with histopathology review, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK and correlated the results with overall survival. Twenty-six cases of not otherwise specified PTCL (PTCL-NOS) were also examined by FISH for comparison. Most AITL patients were male (69%) and elderly (median age at 67 years) with frequent bone marrow involvement (53%), high Ann Arbor stages (77%), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (68%). Most cases (80%) showed a typical CD4+/CD8- phenotype and in 90% cases there were scattered EBV-positive B-cells (less than 10% cells). None of these cases showed t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation by FISH. Gain of ITK and SYK gene was identified in 38% and 14% tumors, respectively, but both were not associated with overall survival. Performance status < 2 was associated with a better outcome but not the other clinicopathological factors. All PTCL-NOS cases were negative for ITK-SYK translocation with similar rates (38% and 12%, respectively) of gains at ITK and SYK loci as that of AITL. In this so far the largest series of AITL from Taiwan, we reported the clinicopathological features and FISH findings on ITK and SYK genes. We confirmed the absence of t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation, which may serve as an additional differential diagnostic tool from PTCL-F when present. PTCL-NOS shared a similar pattern of ITK and SYK gains with AITL. More studies are warranted to elucidate the roles of SYK and ITK and other genes in the lymphomagenesis of AITL in Taiwan.


Cheng S.-P.,Mackay Medical College and Mackay Memorial Hospital | Cheng S.-P.,Taipei Medical University | Hsu Y.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Liu C.-L.,Mackay Medical College and Mackay Memorial Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Somatic BRAF mutation is frequently observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Recent evidence suggests that PTCs are heterogeneous tumors containing a subclonal or oligoclonal occurrence of BRAF mutation. Conflicting results have been reported concerning the prognostic significance of the mutant allele frequency. Our present aim was to investigate the association between the percentage of BRAF c.1799T > A (p.Val600Glu) alleles and clinicopathological parameters in PTC.Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh-frozen specimens obtained from 50 PTC patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. The BRAF mutation status was determined by Sanger sequencing. The percentage of mutant BRAF alleles was quantified by mass spectrometric genotyping, pyrosequencing, and competitive allele-specific TaqMan PCR (castPCR).Results: Positive rate of BRAF mutation was 72 % by Sanger sequencing, 82 % by mass spectrometric genotying, and 84 % by pyrosequencing or castPCR. The average percentage of mutant BRAF alleles was 22.5, 31, and 30.7 %, respectively. There was a good correlation among three quantification methods (Spearman’s rho = 0.87–0.97; p < 0.0001). The mutant allele frequency was significantly correlated with tumor size (rho = 0.47–0.52; p < 0.01) and extrathyroidal invasion. The frequency showed no difference in pathological lymph node metastasis.Conclusions: The percentage of mutant BRAF alleles is positively associated with tumor burden and extrathyroidal invasion in PTC. Relatively good correlations exist among mass spectrometric genotyping, pyrosequencing, and castPCR in quantification of mutant BRAF allele frequency. © 2014, Society of Surgical Oncology.


PubMed | Chang Gung University, Taipei Medical University Hospital, National Taiwan University Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gynecologic oncology | Year: 2015

To evaluate the role of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the management of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCCC) through a retrospective study of Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group.We reviewed the medical records and histological files of 144 patients with FIGO stages IA-IIB SCCC treated in 11 main hospitals in Taiwan from 1987 to 2009.There were 110 patients receiving primary surgery and 34 primary radiation therapy. Most patients in each group also received chemotherapy as part of primary treatment. A lower loco-regional failure rate was observed in patients who received primary radiation therapy than in those who had primary surgery (6% vs. 27%; P=0.009). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 89% for 13 surgically treated patients with cervical tumor 2cm and no lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) in whom recurrence was noted in 2 of 4 patients without receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and none in the 9 patients who had chemotherapy. Excluding these 13 patients, primary radiation therapy with at least 5cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy (n=14, including 12 stages IB2-IIB) resulted in a 5-year OS of 78%, better than that of 46% by primary surgery (n=97, including 40 stages IB2-IIB) (P=0.046).None of the 9 patients with cervical tumor 2cm and no LVSI showed disease recurrence after primary surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. For most patients with stages I-II, primary radiation therapy with aggressive chemotherapy was associated with better survival than surgery.


PubMed | Mackay Medical College and Mackay Memorial Hospital, Tzu Chi University, Mackay Memorial Hospital and Taipei Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of surgical research | Year: 2014

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta and gamma (the p110 and p110 isoforms of PI3K) actively participate in the process of inflammation. We sought to elucidate the possible roles of PI3K and PI3K in mediating the anti-inflammation effects of naloxone.Murine macrophages were treated with endotoxin, endotoxin plus naloxone, or endotoxin plus naloxone plus the PI3K inhibitors (the PI3K inhibitor IC87114, the PI3K inhibitor AS252424, or IC87114 plus AS252424) and denoted as the LPS, LPS + N, LPS + N + IC, LPS + N + AS, and LPS + N + IC + AS group, respectively. Differences in inflammatory molecules and levels of nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activation and Akt activation (indicator of PI3K activity) among these groups were compared.The concentrations of inflammatory molecules (macrophage inflammatory protein 2, tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-1, and cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2) and the levels of NF-B activation (p-NF-B p65 and p-inhibitor-B concentrations and NF-B-DNA binding activity) of the LPS + N group were significantly lower than those of the LPS group (all P < 0.001). These data confirmed the anti-inflammation effects of naloxone. Moreover, the anti-inflammation effects of naloxone could be counteracted by the inhibitors of PI3K and PI3K, as the concentrations of inflammatory molecules and the levels of NF-B activation of the LPS + N group were significantly lower than those of the LPS + N + IC, LPS + N + AS, and LPS + N + IC + AS groups (all P < 0.05). In contrast, the concentration of phosphorylated Akt of the LPS + N group was significantly higher than those of the LPS, LPS + N + IC, LPS + N + AS, and LPS + N + IC + AS groups (all P < 0.05).PI3K and PI3K play crucial roles in mediating the anti-inflammation effects of naloxone.


PubMed | Mackay Medical College and Mackay Memorial Hospital
Type: | Journal: World journal of surgical oncology | Year: 2014

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in the thyroid gland and thyroid tumors. CMV infection may activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, of which aberrant activation is frequently associated with BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer.A total of 45 paired tumorous and adjacent non-neoplastic tissue samples, including 5 follicular adenoma and 40 papillary thyroid cancer, were obtained during thyroidectomy. BRAF mutational status was determined using direct sequencing. The presence of CMV DNA was determined using conventional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. CMV protein in the tissue samples were evaluated with Western blot analysis.BRAF mutation was identified in the cancerous part of 31 (78%) papillary thyroid cancers. Papillary cancer with BRAF mutation was significantly associated with a larger tumor size (P = 0.045), extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.008), and a higher TNM stage (P = 0.044). CMV DNA and protein were not detected in any studied samples.Our results suggest no association between CMV infection and papillary thyroid cancer.


PubMed | New York University, Mackay Medical College and Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Wuhan University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Prostate cancer (PCa) cells undergoing neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) are clinically relevant to the development of relapsed castration-resistant PCa. Increasing evidences show that autophagy involves in the development of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors, including PCa. To clarify the effect of autophagy on NED, androgen-sensitive PCa LNCaP cells were examined. Treatment of LNCaP cells with IL-6 resulted in an induction of autophagy. In the absence of androgen, IL-6 caused an even stronger activation of autophagy. Similar result was identified in NED induction. Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) markedly decreased NED. This observation was confirmed by beclin1 and Atg5 silencing experiments. Further supporting the role of autophagy in NED, we found that LC3 was up-regulated in PCa tissue that had relapsed after androgen-deprivation therapy when compared with their primary tumor counterpart. LC3 staining in relapsed PCa tissue showed punctate pattern similar to the staining of chromogranin A (CgA), a marker for NED cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibition induced the apoptosis of IL-6 induced NE differentiated PCa cells. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of beclin1 or Atg5 sensitized NE differentiated LNCaP cells to etoposide, a chemotherapy drug. To identify the mechanisms, phosphorylation of IL-6 downstream targets was analyzed. An increase in phospho-AMPK and a decrease in phospho-mTOR were found, which implies that IL-6 regulates autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Most important to this study is the discovery of REST, a neuronal gene-specific transcriptional repressor that is involved in autophagy activation. REST was down-regulated in IL-6 treatment. Knockdown experiments suggest that REST is critical to NED and autophagy activation by IL-6. Together, our studies imply that autophagy is involved in PCa progression and plays a cytoprotective role when NED is induced in PCa cells by IL-6 treatment. These results reveal the potential of targeting autophagy as part of a combined therapeutic regime for NE tumors.

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