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Izakian H.,University of Isfahan | Abraham A.,Machine Intelligence Research Labs
Expert Systems with Applications

Fuzzy clustering is an important problem which is the subject of active research in several real-world applications. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm is one of the most popular fuzzy clustering techniques because it is efficient, straightforward, and easy to implement. However, FCM is sensitive to initialization and is easily trapped in local optima. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a stochastic global optimization tool which is used in many optimization problems. In this paper, a hybrid fuzzy clustering method based on FCM and fuzzy PSO (FPSO) is proposed which make use of the merits of both algorithms. Experimental results show that our proposed method is efficient and can reveal encouraging results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Shrivastava L.,Madhav Institute of Technology and Science | Tomar G.S.,Machine Intelligence Research Labs | Bhadauria S.S.,Madhav Institute of Technology and Science
International Journal of Grid and High Performance Computing

Grid computing came into existence as a manner of sharing heavy computational loads among multiple computers to be able to compute highly complex mathematical problems. The grid topology is highly flexible and easily scalable, allowing users to join and leave the grid without the hassle of time and resource-hungry identification procedures, having to adjust their devices or install additional software. The goal of grid computing is described as "to provide flexible, secure and coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions and resources". AODV is an on-demand (reactive) algorithm capable of both unicast and multicast routing. In this paper, AODV has been modified by varying some of the configuration parameters used in this algorithm to improve its performance. This modified protocol i.e. A-AODV (advanced ad hoc on demand distance vector) has been compared with AODV in grid environment. The simulations have shown that A-AODV is able to achieve high throughput and packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay is reduced. © 2011, IGI Global. Source

Benxian Y.U.E.,Dalian University of Technology | Hongbo L.I.U.,Dalian University of Technology | Abraham A.,Machine Intelligence Research Labs
Computing and Informatics

Swarm Intelligence (SI) is an innovative distributed intelligent paradigm whereby the collective behaviors of unsophisticated individuals interacting locally with their environment cause coherent functional global patterns to emerge. Although the swarm algorithms have exhibited good performance across a wide range of application problems, it is difficult to analyze the convergence. In this paper, we discuss the dynamic trajectory and convergence of the swarm intelligent model, namely the particle swarm algorithm. We explore the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation using differential analysis and Laplace transform. The trajectories are parsed into first-order inertial element and second-order oscillation element. Their transfer functions are derived, and the trajectories are described in explicit time functions. The first-order inertial element is helpful to maintain the trajectory's stability and algorithm convergence, while the second-order oscillation element trends to explore some new search spaces for the better solutions. The convergence regions of the swarm system are analyzed using the spectral radius and Lyapunov second theorem on stability. Source

Kushwah V.S.,The New School | Tomar G.S.,Machine Intelligence Research Labs
Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, CSNT 2011

Use of discontinuities in ground planes or in microstrip lines is currently employed to improve the performance of different passive circuits. It includes size reduction of amplifiers; enhancement of filter characteristics and applications to suppress harmonics in patch antennas. This paper presents an improved method of size reduction of a microstrip antenna using Defected Microstrip Structure. It does so by introducing imperfections in the microstrip antenna on the conducting layer using a DMS designed defect. The design was simulated using IE3D Electromagnetic Simulator. The results are very encouraging as it increases the number of components in a given constant area. On the other hand, a new proposal, called defected microstrip structure (DMS), has been successfully used in reducing the size of, and can be further used as tuning technique for, rectangular patch antennas. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Zhang X.,Dalian Maritime University | Liu H.,Dalian Maritime University | Abraham A.,Machine Intelligence Research Labs
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing

Context-aware web services have been attracting significant attention as an important approach for improving the usability of web services. In this paper, we explore a novel approach to model dynamic behaviors of interacting context-aware web services, aiming to effectively process and take advantage of contexts and realize behavior adaptation of web services and further to facilitate the development of context-aware application of web services. We present an interaction model of context-aware web services based on context-aware process network (CAPN), which is a data-flow and channel-based model of cooperative computation. The CAPN is extended to context-aware web service network by introducing a kind of sensor processes, which is used to catch contextual data from external environment. Through modeling the register link's behaviors, we present how a web service can respond to its context changes dynamically. The formal behavior semantics of our model is described by calculus of communicating systems process algebra. The behavior adaptation and context awareness in our model are discussed. An eXtensible Markup Language-formatted service behavior description language named BML4WS is designed to describe behaviors and behavior adaptation of interacting context-aware web services. Finally, an application case is demonstrated to illustrate the proposed model how to adapt context changes and describe service behaviors and their changes. © 2008-2012 IEEE. Source

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