Digdon N.,MacEwan University |
Landry K.,MacEwan University
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2013
Does evening circadian preference predict university students' motives for drinking alcohol (i.e. social, enhancement, conformity, or coping motives)? Drinking to cope, which is associated with alcohol problems, may be more common in evening types because of their sleep problems and difficulties in dealing with stress. Two hundred and nineteen university students (M age = 21.80, SD = 6.80) completed online the Composite Scale of Morningness, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised, the Sleep Quality Scale, the COPE measure of coping with stress, a measure of socially desirable responding, and gave information about gender and age. Evening preference was associated with greater use of all drinking motives, and with poorer sleep and poorer coping with stress. Multiple regression showed that drinking to cope was best predicted by poor sleep, social drinking, and avoidant coping with stress (R2 = 0.45). Poor sleep and drinking to cope are a cause for concern because of possible reciprocal causality. Copyright © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Boulianne S.,MacEwan University
Online Information Review | Year: 2016
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to discuss the themes identified in the submissions to this volume. The findings are contextualized in recent scholarship on these themes. Design/methodology/approach-The discussion is organized around predicting social media use among candidates, organizations, and citizens, then exploring differences in the content of social media postings among candidates, organizations, and citizens, and finally exploring the impact of social media use on mobilization and participatory inequality defined by gender, age, and socio-economic status. Findings-This volume addresses whether social media use is more common among liberal or conservative citizens, candidates, and organizations; the level of negativity in social media discourse and the impact on attitudes; the existence of echo chambers of like-minded individuals and groups; the extent and nature of interactivity in social media; and whether social media will reinforce participation inequalities. In sum, the studies suggest that negativity and interactivity on social media are limited and mixed support for echo chambers. While social media mobilizes citizens, these citizens are those who already pre-disposed to engage in civic and political life. Originality/value-This paper explores key topics in social media research drawing upon 60 recently published studies. Most of the studies are published in 2015 and 2016, providing a contemporary analysis of these topics. © 2016 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Overend A.,MacEwan University
Food, Culture and Society | Year: 2013
Discourses of nutritional health are strongly associated with illness, and have recently been linked to the prevalence and management of chronic undefined disorders. Using the case of Candida-a yeast-related disorder of vague symptomatology-I explore the role of food in the narratives of twenty-four people living with Candida. As Candida remains a speculative illness within the boundaries of biomedical science, it is relevant to critically explore the often-focal role of food in the management of this condition, and to consider the range of personal, social and cultural motivations at work in its dietary regulation. Taking up Foucault's theory of docility, I trace the ways in which dietary practices can be understood as normalizing the Candidad-body by helping to create a sense of certainty and control in the persistent face of illness ambiguity. In drawing on Foucault's later work, I move beyond illness dieting as solely a disciplinary regime and explore the ways in which dietary regime can also be conceptualized as a practice in the care of the self, fostering a heightened, often-changing sense of self. While Candida dieting practices will never fully operate separate from the pervasive discourses of nutritional science, they can offer productive possibilities in the regulation and maintenance of an illness not fully recognized by biomedical science. © Association for the Study of Food and Society 2013.
Furze M.F.A.,MacEwan University |
Pienkowski A.J.,Bangor University |
Coulthard R.D.,University of Alberta
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2014
Radiocarbon-dated marine mammal remains from emergent Arctic coastlines have frequently been used to reconstruct Holocene sea-ice histories. The use of such reconstructions has hitherto been complicated by uncertain marine reservoir corrections precluding meaningful intercomparisons with data reported in calibrated or sidereal years. Based on an exhaustive compilation of previously published marine mammal radiocarbon dates (both live-harvested materials and subfossils) from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), new, statistically-derived δ13C and δR values are provided. Average δ13C values are:-16.1±1.1‰ (bone collagen; n=193) for bowhead (Balaena mysticetus);-14.4±0.5‰ (n=44; dentine) for beluga (Delphinapterus leucas);-14.8±1.9‰ (teeth and tusks; n=18) and-18.0±4.7‰ (n=9; bone collagen) for walrus (Odobenus rosmarus). δR values are 170±95 14C years for bowhead (n=23) and 240±60 14C years for beluga (n=12). Scarce data preclude calculation of meaningful, statistically robust walrus δR. Using the new δR values, an expanded and revised database of calibrated bowhead dates (651 dates; many used in previous CAA sea-ice reconstructions) shows pronounced late Quaternary spatio-temporal fluctuations in bone abundance. Though broadly resembling earlier bowhead subfossil frequency data, analysis of the new expanded database suggests early- and mid-Holocene increases in whale abundance to be of longer duration and lower amplitude than previously considered. A more even and persistent spread of infrequent low-abundance remains during "whale free" intervals is also seen. The dominance of three eastern regions (Prince Regent Inlet & Gulf of Boothia; Admiralty Inlet; Berlinguet Inlet/Bernier Bay) in the CAA data, collectively contributing up to 88% of all subfossil remains in the mid-Holocene, is notable. An analysis of calibrated regional sea-level index points suggests that severance of the Admiralty Inlet-Gulf of Boothia marine channel due to isostatically-driven regression may have played a significant role in enhanced whale mortality during this interval. Comparisons between the newly calibrated bowhead data and other regional sea-ice proxy data further highlight spatial and temporal discrepancies, potentially due to regional asynchronicities and variable sensitivities in proxy response to climate and oceanographic forcing. However, the limited number of deglacial-postglacial marine records continues to hamper extensive intercomparisons between marine mammal and other proxy datasets. Nevertheless, an examination of assumptions inherent in linking bowhead subfossil frequencies, population densities, and sea-ice thickness and distribution, shows that such relationships are highly complex. Factors such as broad sea-ice preferences, variable mortality rates and causes, long distance carcass transport, variable coastline and basin/channel geometries, and changing emergence rates all complicate the correlation of whale bone abundance to sea-ice histories. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Hamilton T.J.,MacEwan University |
Holcombe A.,MacEwan University |
Tresguerres M.,University of California at San Diego
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014
The average surface pH of the ocean is dropping at a rapid rate due to the dissolution of anthropogenic CO2, raising concerns for marine life. Additionally, some coastal areas periodically experience upwelling of CO2-enriched water with reduced pH. Previous research has demonstrated ocean acidification (OA)-induced changes in behavioural and sensory systems including olfaction, which is due to altered function of neural gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Here, we used a camera-based tracking software system to examine whether OA-dependent changes in GABAA receptors affect anxiety in juvenile Californian rockfish (Sebastes diploproa). Anxiety was estimated using behavioural tests that measure light/dark preference (scototaxis) and proximity to an object. After one week in OA conditions projected for the next century in the California shore (1125 ± 100 μatm, pH 7.75), anxiety was significantly increased relative to controls (483 ± 40 μatm CO2, pH 8.1). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol, but not the antagonist gabazine, caused a significant increase in anxiety consistent with altered Cl- flux in OA-exposed fish. OA-exposed fish remained more anxious even after 7 days back in control seawater; however, they resumed their normal behaviour by day 12. These results show that OA could severely alter rockfish behaviour; however, this effect is reversible. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Shaw C.S.J.,University of New Brunswick |
Walton E.,MacEwan University |
Walton E.,University of Alberta
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2013
The distribution of shock melts in four shergottites, having both vein and pocket geometry, has been defined and the conductive cooling time over the range 2500°C to 900°C calculated. Isolated 1mm2 pockets cool in 1.17s and cooling times increase with pocket area. An isolated vein 1×7mm in Northwest Africa (NWA) 4797 cools to 900°C in 4.5s. Interference between thermal haloes of closely spaced shock melts decreases the thermal gradient, extending cooling times by a factor of 1.4 to 100. This is long enough to allow differential diffusion of Ar and Xe from the melt. Small pockets (1mm2) lose 2.2% Ar and 5.2% Xe during cooling, resulting in a small change in the Ar/Xe ratio of the dissolved gas over that originally trapped. With longer cooling times there is significant fractionation of Xe from Ar and the Ar/Xe ratio increases rapidly. The largest pockets show less variation of Ar/Xe and likely preserve the original trapped gas composition. Considering all of the model calculations, even the smallest isolated pockets have cooling times greater than the duration of the pressure pulse, i.e., >0.01s. The crystallization products of these shock melts will be unrelated to the peak shock pressure experienced by the meteorite. © The Meteoritical Society, 2013.
Walton E.L.,MacEwan University |
Walton E.L.,University of Alberta
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2013
Lithology A of Martian meteorite Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001 contains fragments entrained within a 100μm-thick shear-induced shock vein. These fragments, the shock vein matrix and walls of olivine along the vein, as well as shock deformation and transformation in rock-forming minerals in the bulk rock, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, the electron microprobe and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of ringwoodite, the spinel-structured high-pressure (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 polymorph, has been confirmed in EETA79001 for the first time. Ringwoodite occurs within and around the shock vein, exhibiting granular and lamellar textures. In both textures ringwoodite consists of ∼500nm size distinct grains. Ringwoodite lamellae are 115nm to 1.3μm wide. Planar fractures in olivine provided sites for heterogeneous nucleation of ringwoodite. Analyses performed on the largest grains (≥1μm) show that ringwoodite is consistently higher in iron (Fa27.4-32.4) relative to surrounding olivine (Fa25.1-267.7), implying that there was Fe-Mg exchange during their transformation, and therefore their growth was diffusion-controlled. In the shock environment, diffusion takes place dynamically, i.e., with concurrent deformation and grain size reduction. This results in enhanced diffusion rates (≥10-8m2/s) over nm - μm distances.Shock deformation in host rock minerals including strong mosaicism, pervasive fracturing, polysynthetic twinning (pyroxene only), extensive shock melting, local transformation of olivine to ringwoodite, and complete transformation of plagioclase to maskelynite in the bulk rock, indicate that EETA79001 was strongly shocked. The short shock duration (0.01. s) combined with a complex thermal history, resulted in crystallization of the 100 μm thick shock vein in EETA79001 during the pressure release, and partial back-transformation of ringwoodite to olivine. Based on the pressure stabilities of clinopyroxene. +. ringwoodite, crystallization at the shock vein margin began at ∼18. GPa. Olivine and clinopyroxene crystallized at <14. GPa closer to the shock vein center. These represent a minimum limit to the shock pressure loading experienced by EETA79001. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Jung S.,MacEwan University
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry | Year: 2015
High levels of insight are interpreted as indications of a treatment compliance and good outcome by clinical professionals. However, it is unclear whether a defendant's insight plays a role in the decision-making of jurors when determining criminal responsibility. It may be the case that personal biases and attitudes toward the mentally ill and the insanity defense are more relevant in such decisions. This study examines the influence of two core dimensions of insight and personal attitudes on juror decision-making. Participants read trial scenarios describing a defendant who is accused of a violent crime and is diagnosed with schizophrenia. Assigning a verdict of not criminally responsible to the defendant was not influenced by insight, but instead, by supportive attitudes of the insanity defense and higher attributions of blame to external factors and to psychological factors. These findings highlight the need for continued investigation in the area of extra-legal factors that guide legal decision-making when defendants have a mental disorder. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Zutter C.,MacEwan University
Etudes Inuit Studies | Year: 2012
Despite low productivity rates and sparse tree cover in the circumpolar region, the Inuit identify woody plants and their products as important parts of their diet that provide essential nutrients and medicine. However, evidence of historic and prehistoric Inuit plant use is less well known. This article presents archaeobotanical research from two 18th-century Inuit sites in Northern Labrador. At both sites, abundant botanical remains were recovered, suggesting woody plants were consumed as food, used as medicines, and modified for many valuable purposes. These results are consistent with Inuit ethnobotanical studies, suggesting that woody plants contribute important elements to the Inuit economy today and have done so in the recent past.
News Article | February 15, 2017
(PRLEAP.COM) February 3, 2017 - A new study has put the total financial cost of the Fort McMurray wildfire close to $10 billion . With the insurance loss already believed to be around $4 billion, the clear lessons are there for the industry to see. Shop Insurance Canada says learning from these lessons will be easier said than done and that more Fort McMurray's are inevitable.The full extent of the financial impact caused by the Fort McMurray wildfire has reached $9.5 billion, according to a study. An assessment for the total financial loss considers both direct and indirect costs of the blaze, which swept through the Albertan town during May, 2016 and displaced over 90,000 residents for nearly a month.A figure of $9.5 billion has been reached by MacEwan University economist Rafat Alam. This considers the cost of replacing infrastructure, including buildings. Also added was lost income for various industries in the regions.There were also significant indirect costs, such as lost timber, medical treatment, and environmental damage. Indeed, Alam believes the cost may still rise further:"It's not fully done yet. More data kept coming and I'm sure it will keep coming in."However, there will be no short-term finality as Alam believes it could take up to 10 years before full understanding of the financial impact from Fort McMurray is understood. Insurance companies are estimated to have paid out around $4 billion, making the fire the costliest insurance loss in Canadian history.1,800 family home were lost in the fire, as well as hundreds of other commercial and government buildings. One of the truly remarkable aspects of the Fort McMurray blaze is that no one died as a direct result of the fire.Insurers were warned in September that Fort McMurray is just the first of major wildfires, which will increase in the coming years. Climate change caused by global warming will increase forest fires in the country by 50% before the end of the century.That's according to a new report from Natural Resources Canada. The report was released last week and warns that even the Fort McMurray wildfire will be surpassed in terms of size, damage, and cost to the insurance industry.The May wildfire dubbed the Beast covered 590,000 hectares, but climate change will see that number broken in the coming years. Indeed, the area of forest burned by fires each year will double by the start of the next century."Climate change is gradually imposing an increasing trend on forest fires, a trend that is partially masked by the large variability of this disturbance," says the report.In 2015, there were 7,068 forest fires in Canada, a slight increase on the 10-year average. However, it seems fires are spreading more because the area burned by those 7,068 blazes was 50% higher.Industry expert, ShopInsuranceCanada.ca, says that the seeds are already sewn on more Fort McMurray-like events. Insurance companies cannot stop them happening and must be prepared to deal with the losses they cause."The problem with events like Fort McMurray is the advancement on climate change upon places where people have created population centres. Insurance companies must create an industry infrastructure and have teams ready to deal with these huge events. While the industry is still recovering from the Fort McMurray wildfire, another event could be just around the corner. It is one of the biggest challenges insurance companies now face."Shop Insurance Canada is a Toronto based company that specializes in delivering the best auto insurance products to customers around Ontario and Canada. The online quoting tool uses an engine that is easy to use and accurate enough to deliver the best auto insurance quotes from over 25 of Canada's leading providers. Shop Insurance Canada also offers expert advice on the auto insurance industry, as well as guides and news to help customers find the best deal possible.Shop Insurance Canada works hard to bring all the latest insurance news to customers. We believe that understanding the industry starts with knowing what is happening day to day. Our customers and readers are hugely important to us, and we want them to get the best deals by being involved in the industry. If you have any interesting insurance topics or stories, let us know and we will be happy to consider it and write it up.Perhaps you have a funny story about your premium evaluations, or maybe a genuine worry about the state of insurance in Canada. Shop Insurance Canada wants your voice and story to be heard, so get in touch with us via our official contact page 1003-60 Bathurst St.Toronto, OntarioM5V 2P4Canada416-913-0151