Marshall J.A.,MacDermid Inc.
IPC APEX EXPO Conference and Exhibition 2013, APEX EXPO 2013 | Year: 2013
• Two primary failure modes from trapped moisture: • Premature resin decomposition from incomplete resin cross-linking. • Explosive vaporization during high temperature thermal exposure. • Prior papers have well documented negative effects of trapped moisture before lamination including: - Red color during lamination - Reduced thermal reliability - Increased high frequency signal loss - Increased CAF. Source
Kumar S.,Purdue University |
Smetana J.,Alcatel - Lucent |
Smetana J.,High Density Packaging User Group HDPUG International |
Love D.,Oracle Inc. |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2011
The electrodeposition conditions that contribute to microvoid formation during isothermal aging of Pb-free solder-electrodeposited copper were evaluated in a systematic series of processing experiments. The results of 2 K full-factorial design of experiment are presented to show the effect of prescreened electroplating parameters such as brighteners, wetting agent, bath age, and current density on the propensity for microvoiding at solder-copper interfaces after annealing at 125°C for 40 days. It was found that the amount of microvoiding is greatly affected by bath age, wetting agent, brightener, and their interactions. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy and glow discharge spectroscopy allowed us to establish a correlation between impurities incorporated in copper during electroplating and microvoiding at the solder-copper interface. © 2011 TMS. Source
Hnetinka C.,MacDermid Inc. |
Niksa M.,Water Star
Metal Finishing | Year: 2011
There is increasing interest in utilizing mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes in a wide variety of plating applications. These dimensionally stable electrodes have very high catalytic activity and provide much higher throwing power and, hence, better plating distribution. This is particularly important for areas of the plated part that have an unfavorable aspect ratio or deep recesses. While the high catalytic activity is desirable, it can have consequences for the plating bath. With an ever-increasing stability of anode coatings, their application continues to spread, allowing purification of waste for swimming pools, making chlorine on site for water treatment plants, and purifying seawater used in harvesting oil from offshore oil platforms. Due to continually growing demands in the manufacture of electronics, they are used for making ultra pure water via a process called electro-deionization. Source
Micyus N.,MacDermid Inc.
National Association for Surface Finishing Annual Conference and Trade Show, SUR/FIN 2013 | Year: 2013
The corrosion resistance of high phosphorus electroless nickel (EN) is well known. But how is the corrosion resistance affected by a top layer of a lower coefficient of friction electroless nickel? The two nanoparticles co-deposited in the upper layer are polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and boron nitride (BN), separately. EN/PTFE and EN/BN deposits of various percent weight concentrations are plated over high phosphorus electroless nickel and the neutral salt spray (NSS) results are compared to a single layer of high phosphorus EN. Copyright © (2013) by the National Association for Surface Finishing. Source
Barnstead M.,MacDermid Inc. |
Schweitzer J.,MacDermid Inc. |
Schumacher W.,General Motors
Plating and Surface Finishing | Year: 2010
Decorative coatings used in exterior automotive applications are typically comprised of multiple layers of nickel and chromium. Generally, three or four layers of nickel are applied prior to the chromium plating for exterior automotive applications. The properties of these nickel layers have a tremendous impact on the corrosion performance of the deposit and the subsequent service life of the part. The most widely used accelerated corrosion test to evaluate exterior automotive parts is the Copper Accelerated Acetic Acid Salt Spray (CASS) test. Certain areas on the exterior of a vehicle, such as bumpers, are also exposed to exhaust fumes. These fumes can degrade decorative coatings prematurely. A test method has been developed which can simulate prolonged exposure to these exhaust gases. This paper will review the results of experiments focused on the optimization of one of these layers, specifically by reviewing modifications made to the microporous nickel layer and the subsequent impact on the corrosion performance of the parts in both standard CASS testing and after exposure to cyclic corrosion simulating exposure to exhaust gases. Source