Waterbury, CT, United States
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Kumar S.,Purdue University | Smetana J.,Alcatel - Lucent | Smetana J.,High Density Packaging User Group HDPUG International | Love D.,Oracle Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2011

The electrodeposition conditions that contribute to microvoid formation during isothermal aging of Pb-free solder-electrodeposited copper were evaluated in a systematic series of processing experiments. The results of 2 K full-factorial design of experiment are presented to show the effect of prescreened electroplating parameters such as brighteners, wetting agent, bath age, and current density on the propensity for microvoiding at solder-copper interfaces after annealing at 125°C for 40 days. It was found that the amount of microvoiding is greatly affected by bath age, wetting agent, brightener, and their interactions. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy and glow discharge spectroscopy allowed us to establish a correlation between impurities incorporated in copper during electroplating and microvoiding at the solder-copper interface. © 2011 TMS.


Jin L.,MacDermid Inc. | Nable J.,MacDermid Inc. | Feng K.,MacDermid Inc. | Toscano L.,MacDermid Inc. | Long E.,MacDermid Inc.
IPC APEX EXPO Conference and Exhibition 2013, APEX EXPO 2013 | Year: 2013

An electroless nickel (EN) layer is frequently used in various industrial applications. Commonly it is used as the barrier layer in electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) as a solderability preservative for the electronics industry. The finish provides excellent corrosion resistance and good solderability. A shortcoming of this process is the potential for a hyperactive corrosion of the nickel surface during immersion gold plating. The resultant defect displays itself as a gray or black appearance at the nickel/gold interface, known as "Black Pad" or "Black Line Nickel". It is important to determine and control the corrosion properties of an EN deposit during an ENIG process to obtain high quality products. Unfortunately, quantitative analysis of corrosion resistance of the EN layer has not been established in the field of PCB. In this paper, an electrochemical method via sequential electrochemical reduction analysis (SERA) instrument to quantify the corrosion resistance of the EN deposit is proposed. The data obtained via the electrochemical method was analyzed and correlated to the deposit properties of the EN. The method is easy to use and can be applied for quantitative analysis in industrial EN processes. © 2013 by IPC.


Marshall J.A.,MacDermid Inc.
IPC APEX EXPO Conference and Exhibition 2013, APEX EXPO 2013 | Year: 2013

• Two primary failure modes from trapped moisture: • Premature resin decomposition from incomplete resin cross-linking. • Explosive vaporization during high temperature thermal exposure. • Prior papers have well documented negative effects of trapped moisture before lamination including: - Red color during lamination - Reduced thermal reliability - Increased high frequency signal loss - Increased CAF.


Feng K.,MacDermid Inc. | Spencer T.,MacDermid Inc. | Watkowski J.,MacDermid Inc.
Proceedings of Technical Papers - International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly, and Circuits Technology Conference, IMPACT | Year: 2013

Printed circuit designers continually increase the technological complexity of their products. This includes more utilization of microvias and higher population densities via decreases in pitch. Many of these products will also require the application of thinner copper foils (< 17 microns) to resolve tighter lines and spaces. Building these more complex products often pushes the limits of capability in existing production processes and controls. Fabricators must investigate alternative methods to produce these highly functional devices while maintaining quality and low cost. This paper will detail a simple, highly automated metallization system that can enable the fabricator to consistently produce high quality, high density interconnect packages with high yields. This integrated metallization system combines a horizontal desmear process, with a horizontal carbon technology, and a vertical continuous plating system. The production proven carbon system is well suited for modified semi additive processes (MSAP) when coupled with a newly developed copper etching technology. This innovative copper cleaning system completely removes carbon from the copper surfaces with a 0.2μm-0.3μm etch rate, eliminating negative etch back and wedge voids due to excessive nail heading, while maintaining a highly conductive coating on the dielectric substrate. In this paper, we will describe this integrated metallization system that produces HDI technology with the same or better performance as electroless copper while providing the added benefits of reduced costs, simpler process controls, and with a smaller equipment foot print than conventional horizontal electroless copper processes. Additionally, we compare this new copper cleaning process to the traditional sulfuric acid/persulfate microetch cleaning as it pertains to copper cleanliness, through hole integrity and microvia reliability. The low etch copper cleaning is adaptable to existing equipment sets with minimal or no modification. © 2013 IEEE.


Ganjei J.,MacDermid Inc. | Long E.,MacDermid Inc. | Toscano L.,MacDermid Inc.
44th International Symposium on Microelectronics 2011, IMAPS 2011 | Year: 2011

The continuing drive for ever increasing performance enhancement in the electronics industry, in combination with the recent, very significant increase in precious metal costs have left fabricators and OEMs questioning what the best, most cost effective, surface finish is for high reliability applications. Currently, the IC substrate market relies heavily on electrolytic nickel and gold as a solderable and superior wire bondable surface. The use of this finish has allowed manufacturers to avoid the reliability concerns However, this choice also results in significant design restraints being imposed. Many in the industry are now investigating the use of electroless nickel/electroless palladium/immersion gold (ENEPIG) to achieve both high reliability and performance, without the negative design restraints imparted by the use of electrolytic processes. However, over the last year alone, the industry has watched the price of gold increase by 50% and that of palladium double [1]. With this in mind, and considering the historic precedent set in the mid 1990's when ENEPIG was also evaluated as a surface finish for printed circuit boards, when coincidentally, the cost of palladium also reached an all time high, it should be remembered that the electronics industry quickly moved to evaluate alternate, more cost sustainable, surface finishes. This paper details the use of lower cost, alternate surface finishes for IC substrate applications, with particular experimental focus on gold wire bonding capabilities and BGA solderability of the finishes described. The paper also discusses related process cycle advantages and the significantly reduced operating costs associated with these new finishes.


Barnstead M.,MacDermid Inc. | Schweitzer J.,MacDermid Inc. | Schumacher W.,General Motors
Plating and Surface Finishing | Year: 2010

Decorative coatings used in exterior automotive applications are typically comprised of multiple layers of nickel and chromium. Generally, three or four layers of nickel are applied prior to the chromium plating for exterior automotive applications. The properties of these nickel layers have a tremendous impact on the corrosion performance of the deposit and the subsequent service life of the part. The most widely used accelerated corrosion test to evaluate exterior automotive parts is the Copper Accelerated Acetic Acid Salt Spray (CASS) test. Certain areas on the exterior of a vehicle, such as bumpers, are also exposed to exhaust fumes. These fumes can degrade decorative coatings prematurely. A test method has been developed which can simulate prolonged exposure to these exhaust gases. This paper will review the results of experiments focused on the optimization of one of these layers, specifically by reviewing modifications made to the microporous nickel layer and the subsequent impact on the corrosion performance of the parts in both standard CASS testing and after exposure to cyclic corrosion simulating exposure to exhaust gases.


Nikolova M.,MacDermid Inc. | Watkowski J.,MacDermid Inc.
IPC APEX EXPO 2012 | Year: 2012

Miniaturization and increased functionality demands of electronics have substantially decreased the sizes of electronic features that need to be plated. The circuit density of printed circuit designs has been increasing accordingly. Copper is the most preferable metal used in electronic industry for filling small features due to its electrical and thermal conductivity properties and the possibility of electroplating. New technologies started to develop in order to completely fill through vias in build-up core layers in HDI and IC with solid copper. This has been associated with improved thermal and mechanical properties as well as with increased reliability. In this paper the effect of the chemical composition and the processing parameters on the hole filling characteristics of copper electroplating has been studied. It was established that a preliminary treatment in a chemical solution was the most significant factor for void free filling of blind micro vias. Copper concentration was also significant factor, while the leveler concentration was only significant in some cases. The brightener concentration was not a significant factor for the responses tested, which included the fill ratio, dimple, planarization, and surface copper thickness. The optimum conditions of a DC process for filling up a wide range of via sizes and plating simultaneously though holes were determined. The results obtained allow for enhancing via plating capabilities and increasing the reliability. The second part of this paper shows a novel process for filling through vias in core layers up to 400 mkm thick. This process includes two subsequent steps, being PPR or DC plating depending on the substrate thickness and hole diameters. The through vias were completely filled by using a modified process for acid copper electroplating. The chemical and plating parameters are discussed in the paper. Data enclosed demonstrate through vias in build-up core filled without any voids and defects. This innovative technology is at an early stage being at the process of further optimization to enable a variety of HDI and IC substrate package designs.


Feng K.,MacDermid Inc. | Kapadia N.,MacDermid Inc. | Castaldi S.,MacDermid Inc. | Ganjei J.,MacDermid Inc. | And 4 more authors.
International Microsystems Packaging Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference, IMPACT 2010 and International 3D IC Conference, Proceedings | Year: 2010

For wiring boards used in electronic equipment, the demand for a flexible wiring board is increased due to its lightweight, thin features and flexibility. A typical construction of the flexible wiring board includes a polyimide film, used as an electrically insulating base material, a thin metal tiecoat, a copper seedcoat, and a layer of electrodeposited copper. The tiecoat metal is either chromium or nickel based alloy, which serves to enhance adhesion. The purpose of the copper seedcoat is to provide sufficient electrical conductivity to permit electroplating to the desired final copper thickness. Thereafter, the boards go through conventional processes of photoimaging, etching, and stripping to form fine line wiring boards. The fine line wiring formation can be finished by a single step etching process that is involved in photoimaging, etching copper and Ni/Cr alloy together and then stripping the resist. The etching chemistries used for single step etching were typically cupric or ferric chloride/hydrochloric acid solution or permanganate acid solution. As a result of photoresist chemistry leaching into cupric or ferric chloride/hydrochloride acid etchant, the etch rate for Ni/Cr alloy would slow down, the process also had potential to cause too much dissolution of copper. For permanganate acid etchant, Ni/Cr etch rates slow due to passivation by MnO2 reaction product, a 'Neutralization' step with oxalic acid or ascorbic acid to remove MnO2 is necessary to maintain acceptable etch rates. To solve the issues in the single step etching, two-step etching was developed and discussed in the paper. Two-step etching involves in photoimaging, copper etching, resist stripping and then Ni/Cr alloy etching. Since Ni/Cr alloy is etched away post photoresist stripping, this etching process needs to be selective, removing the unwanted Ni/Cr alloy without attacking the copper circuits. MacDermid has developed Eliminator NC process for this application. The process is an efficient stripper that dissolves the tiecoat metal, Ni/Cr alloy, which is sputtered on polyimide, without affecting on copper circuits. The Ni/Cr alloy removal rate depends on the etching solution temperature. At 45-50°C, the alloy can be removed within 30 seconds. Under such conditions, the etch rate on copper is only about 1.0-2.0 micro inch. The process conditions and influential factors were also discussed in the paper, SEM and EDS were used to determine the removing degree of the Ni/Cr alloy.


Hnetinka C.,MacDermid Inc. | Niksa M.,Water Star
Metal Finishing | Year: 2011

There is increasing interest in utilizing mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes in a wide variety of plating applications. These dimensionally stable electrodes have very high catalytic activity and provide much higher throwing power and, hence, better plating distribution. This is particularly important for areas of the plated part that have an unfavorable aspect ratio or deep recesses. While the high catalytic activity is desirable, it can have consequences for the plating bath. With an ever-increasing stability of anode coatings, their application continues to spread, allowing purification of waste for swimming pools, making chlorine on site for water treatment plants, and purifying seawater used in harvesting oil from offshore oil platforms. Due to continually growing demands in the manufacture of electronics, they are used for making ultra pure water via a process called electro-deionization.


Micyus N.,MacDermid Inc.
National Association for Surface Finishing Annual Conference and Trade Show, SUR/FIN 2013 | Year: 2013

The corrosion resistance of high phosphorus electroless nickel (EN) is well known. But how is the corrosion resistance affected by a top layer of a lower coefficient of friction electroless nickel? The two nanoparticles co-deposited in the upper layer are polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and boron nitride (BN), separately. EN/PTFE and EN/BN deposits of various percent weight concentrations are plated over high phosphorus electroless nickel and the neutral salt spray (NSS) results are compared to a single layer of high phosphorus EN. Copyright © (2013) by the National Association for Surface Finishing.

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