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Ke L.,University of Sydney | Ho J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Feng J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Mpofu E.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015

Background Awareness of hypertension, as well as its prevalence, treatment, and control status, has not been comprehensively investigated in Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR), China. Methods A survey was conducted on a randomly sampled population of 1,410 participants (n = 638 men) aged 18-93 years in 2012. Blood pressure was individually measured twice. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were assessed by interview-administered questionnaire. Results Prevalence of hypertension was 34% in Macau, similar to the United States (30%) and United Kingdom (31%). Among hypertensives, 69% were aware of their condition, 59% were treated, and 30% were adequately controlled. Older age (<50 years; odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.6-6.1), being of the male sex (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.9-2.5), having retired (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8-2.3), being married (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3-1.9), having a low level of education in women (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), Pinteraction = 0.01), and lack of salt awareness (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) were associated with hypertension. Older age, having retired, and being married were also associated with higher awareness and treatment rates. Those who were older and married were better controlled. These demographic factors differed by sex. Those who had some knowledge of salt intake were more likely to have higher hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension in Macau in 2012 has increased compared with 2006 (28%) and is comparable with prevalence rates in developed countries. Specific health promotion campaigns related to knowledge of risk factors such as salt intake and smoking may be useful for hypertension prevention and to improve hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates. © 2014 © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ke L.,University of Sydney | Ho J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Feng J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Mpofu E.,University of Sydney | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥ 18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β = -0.072, p < 0.001) as was physical activity (β = -0.021, p < 0.001) and fish consumption (β = -0.177, p < 0.001). In contrast body mass index (weight/height2) was positively associated with hypertension (β = +0.62, p < 0.001), as were pack-years of smoking (β = +0.27, p < 0.001). On multivariate categorical analysis taking into account demographic risk factors in these data (age, gender and occupation) having more than half an hour's sun exposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR = 4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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