Macau Hypertension Alliance

Macau, China

Macau Hypertension Alliance

Macau, China
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Ke L.,University of Sydney | Ho J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Feng J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Mpofu E.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015

Background Awareness of hypertension, as well as its prevalence, treatment, and control status, has not been comprehensively investigated in Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR), China. Methods A survey was conducted on a randomly sampled population of 1,410 participants (n = 638 men) aged 18-93 years in 2012. Blood pressure was individually measured twice. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were assessed by interview-administered questionnaire. Results Prevalence of hypertension was 34% in Macau, similar to the United States (30%) and United Kingdom (31%). Among hypertensives, 69% were aware of their condition, 59% were treated, and 30% were adequately controlled. Older age (<50 years; odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.6-6.1), being of the male sex (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.9-2.5), having retired (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.8-2.3), being married (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3-1.9), having a low level of education in women (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), Pinteraction = 0.01), and lack of salt awareness (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) were associated with hypertension. Older age, having retired, and being married were also associated with higher awareness and treatment rates. Those who were older and married were better controlled. These demographic factors differed by sex. Those who had some knowledge of salt intake were more likely to have higher hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension in Macau in 2012 has increased compared with 2006 (28%) and is comparable with prevalence rates in developed countries. Specific health promotion campaigns related to knowledge of risk factors such as salt intake and smoking may be useful for hypertension prevention and to improve hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates. © 2014 © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ke L.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Ke L.,University of Sydney | Mason R.S.,University of Sydney | Mpofu E.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Associations between documented sun-exposure, exercise patterns and fish and supplement intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were investigated in a random household survey of Macau residents (aged 18-93). Blood samples (566) taken in summer were analyzed for 25OHD and PTH. In this Chinese population, 55% were deficient (25OHD < 50 nmol/L: median (interquartile range) = 47.7 (24.2) nmol/L). Vitamin D deficiency was greatest in those aged <50 years: median (interquartile range) = 43.3 (18.2) nmol/L, females: median (interquartile range) = 45.5 (19.4) nmol/L and those with higher educational qualifications: median (interquartile range) = 43.1 (18.7) nmol/L. In the total Macau population, statistically significant (p < 0.01) modifiable associations with lower 25OHD levels were sunlight exposure (β = 0.06), physical activity (PA) (measured as hours(hrs)/day: β = 0.08), sitting (measured as hrs/day β = -0.20), intake of fish (β = 0.08) and calcium (Ca) supplement intake (β = 0.06) [linear regression analysis adjusting for demographic risk factors]. On similar analysis, and after adjustment for 25OHD, the only significant modifiable associations in the total population with PTH were sitting (β = -0.17), Body Mass Index (β = 0.07) and Ca supplement intake (β = -0.06). In this Macau population less documented sun exposure, fish and Ca supplement intake and exercise were associated with lower 25OHD levels, especially in the younger population, along with the interesting finding that more sitting was associated with both lower 25OHD and high PTH blood levels. In conclusion, unlike findings from Caucasian populations, younger participants were significantly more vitamin D deficient, in particular highly educated single females. This may indicate the desire of young females to be pale and avoid the sun. There are also big differences in lifestyle between the older generation and the younger, in particular with respect to sun exposure and PA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ke L.,University of Sydney | Ho J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Feng J.,Macau Hypertension Alliance | Mpofu E.,University of Sydney | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥ 18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β = -0.072, p < 0.001) as was physical activity (β = -0.021, p < 0.001) and fish consumption (β = -0.177, p < 0.001). In contrast body mass index (weight/height2) was positively associated with hypertension (β = +0.62, p < 0.001), as were pack-years of smoking (β = +0.27, p < 0.001). On multivariate categorical analysis taking into account demographic risk factors in these data (age, gender and occupation) having more than half an hour's sun exposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR = 4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Sydney, University of Maryland College Park, Macau and the Union General of Community Association, Kiang Wu Nursing College of Macau and Macau Hypertension Alliance
Type: | Journal: The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology | Year: 2014

Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged 18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (=-0.072, p<0.001) as was physical activity (=-0.021, p<0.001) and fish consumption (=-0.177, p<0.001). In contrast body mass index (weight/height(2)) was positively associated with hypertension (=+0.62, p<0.001), as were pack-years of smoking (=+0.27, p<0.001). On multivariate categorical analysis taking into account demographic risk factors in these data (age, gender and occupation) having more than half an hours sun exposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 16th Vitamin D Workshop.

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