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Kyoto, Japan

Liu K.,Okayama University of Science | Yorozuya T.,Ehime University | Adachi N.,Mabuchi Clinic | Motoki A.,Red Cross | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background: Inflammatory reactions play an important role in peritoneal sclerosis in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Since histamine affects inflammatory reactions and immune responses, we investigated effects of intraperitoneal administration of histamine on peritonitis induced by mechanical scraping in mice. Methods: After anesthesia, the right peritoneum was scraped 90 times over 1 min, and bilateral peritonea were observed by light microscopy after 7 days. Results: Thickness of the peritoneal membrane on the right side was 174 ± 77 µm (mean ± SD, n = 8), while that on the left side was 24 ± 19 µm. Intraperitoneal administration of histamine (0.3 or 1.0 mmol/L, 0.5 mL each) twice daily for 7 days after scraping decreased thickness of the right peritoneum to 42 and 43 % of that in saline-injected animals, respectively (P < 0.01), although histamine (0.1 mmol/L) did not affect it. Promethazine (5 nmol, twice daily for 7 days), a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, abolished the amelioration caused by histamine (1.0 mmol/L). Neither ranitidine (15 nmol), a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, nor thioperamide (7.5 nmol), a histamine H3/H4 receptor antagonist, affected the outcome in histamine-treated mice. Conclusion: These findings indicate that histamine H1 action partly prevents the development of peritoneal fibrosis caused by mechanical scraping. © 2014, Japanese Society of Nephrology. Source

Iwamoto N.,Tojinkai Hospital | Sato N.,Tojinkai Hospital | Nishida M.,Tojinkai Hospital | Hashimoto T.,Tojinkai Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of the study is to elucidate whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels after parathyroidectomy affect the prognosis of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subjects and methods: Two hundred and ninety-five patients, who underwent PTx without autotransplantation from July 1998 to December 2011, were divided into the low (n = 148) and high (n = 147) PTH groups, using the median value of each mean value of intact PTH after surgery (16.6 pg/mL). After observation for 5.00 years, we evaluated demographic factors, influences of postoperative mineral metabolism, magnitude of uremia, and vitamin D receptor activators on their prognosis, with the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: While overall survival rates in the high and low PTH groups were 54.9 and 74.2 %, respectively (P = 0.1500), cardiovascular survival rates were 71.6 and 94.4 %, respectively (P = 0.0256). The hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality in the high PTH group (≥16.6 pg/mL) was 3.132 (P = 0.0470), and those in groups with the median age more than 59 years and with cardiovascular disease were 2.654 (P = 0.0589) and 3.377 (P = 0.0317), respectively. The intact PTH level 6 days after surgery and the mean postoperative intact PTH value showed a strong correlation (Spearman ρ = 0.9007, P < 0.0001, y = 0.4725x + 30.395, R2 = 0.51798). Conclusion: The present study suggests that maintaining low PTH levels after parathyroidectomy reduces cardiovascular mortality and improves the prognosis. Total parathyroidectomy (more than 4 glands) without autotransplantation seems to be one of the treatment options for managing severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. © 2015 Japanese Society of Nephrology Source

Adachi N.,Mabuchi Clinic | Liu K.,Okayama University of Science | Ninomiya K.,Mabuchi Clinic | Matsuoka E.,Mabuchi Clinic | And 3 more authors.
Resuscitation | Year: 2011

Aims: While diphenhydramine is a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, the agent has been shown to inhibit histamine-N-methyltransferase, a histamine inactivating enzyme in the brain. Since an increase in the brain concentration of histamine ameliorates reperfusion injury after cerebral ischaemia, effects of postischaemic administration of diphenhydramine were evaluated in rats treated with l-histidine, a precursor of histamine. Methods: The right middle cerebral artery was occluded for 2. h, and the infarct size was determined 24. h after reperfusion of cerebral blood flow. Brain oedema was evaluated by comparing the area of the right hemisphere to that of the left hemisphere. Results: Focal cerebral ischaemia provoked marked damage in saline-treated control rats, and infarct volumes in the striatum and cerebral cortex were 56 (49-63) mm3 and 110 (72-148) mm3, respectively (means and 95% confidence intervals, n=6). Administration of l-histidine (1000mg/kg, intraperitoneal) immediately after reperfusion did not affect the infarct size. Simultaneous administration of diphenhydramine (20mg/kg, intraperitoneal) with l-histidine reduced the infarct size to 25% and 21% of that in the control group, respectively. The combination therapy completely reduced ischaemia-induced brain oedema. Conclusion: Because histamine H1 action does not influence ischaemic brain damage, elevation of the central histamine concentration by blockade of histamine-N-methyltransferase may be a likely mechanism responsible for the alleviation. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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