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Nacka, Sweden

Braesch-Andersen S.,Mabtech | Beckman L.,Mabtech | Beckman L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Paulie S.,Mabtech | Kumagai-Braesch M.,Karolinska Institutet
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Apolipoprotein (Apo) D is an important protein produced in many parts of the body. It is necessary for the development and repair of the brain and protection from oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which apoD interacts with lipoproteins in human plasma. By using detergent-free ELISA, we show that immobilized monoclonal antibodies against apoD very efficiently bind to low density lipoprotein (LDL) from plasma; this binding is as equally efficient as binding to an anti-apoB monoclonal antibody. Adding detergent to the plasma inhibited the binding, suggesting that the binding is dependent on the presence of intact lipoprotein particles. Reversing the system by using immobilized anti-apoB revealed that the affinity of apoD for LDL is rather low, suggesting that multiple bindings are needed for a durable connection. Biosensor experiments using purified lipoproteins also showed that purified apoD and high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3), a lipoprotein fraction rich in apoD, were both able to bind LDL very efficiently, indicating that the HDL3-LDL interaction may be a physiological consequence of the affinity of apoD for LDL. Furthermore, we found that apoD increases the binding of HDL to actively growing T24 bladder carcinoma cells but not to quiescent, contact-inhibited, confluent T24 cells. This result is especially intriguing given that the T24 supernatant only contained detectable levels of apoD after growth inhibition, raising the possibility that alternating the expression of apoD and a putative apoD-receptor could give direction to the flow of lipids. In the current paper, we conclude that apoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinomas, thereby highlighting the importance of apoD in lipid metabolism. © 2014 Braesch-Andersen et al. Source


Braesch-Andersen S.,Mabtech | Paulie S.,Mabtech | Smedman C.,Karolinska University Hospital | Mia S.,Karolinska University Hospital | Kumagai-Braesch M.,Karolinska Institutet
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The apoE production by tissue macrophages is crucial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and the aim of this study was to further elucidate how this apolipoprotein is regulated by cytokines present during inflammation. Here we studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14++CD16 -) and intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes being the main producers. As earlier described for macrophages, production was strongly upregulated by TGF-β and downregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β. We could here show that a similar down-regulatory effect was also observed with the type I interferon, IFN-α, while IL-6, often regarded as one of the more prominent inflammatory cytokines, did not affect TGF-β-induced apoE production. The TNF-α inhibitor Enbrel could partly block the down-regulatory effect of IFN-γ, IFN-α and IL-1β, indicating that inhibition of apoE by these cytokines may be dependent on or synergize with TNF-α. Other cytokines tested, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A and IL-23, had no inhibitory effect on apoE production. In contrast to the effect on monocytes, apoE production by primary hepatocytes and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 was more or less unaffected by treatment with cytokines or LPS. © 2013 Braesch-Andersen et al. Source


Arestrom I.,Mabtech | Zuber B.,Mabtech | Bengtsson T.,Mabtech | Ahlborg N.,Mabtech | Ahlborg N.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2012

Human Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β1, one of three TGF-β isoforms, is a pleotropic cytokine critical for many physiological and immunological processes. TGF-β1 is secreted in a latent form, linked to Latency Associated Protein (LAP). Analysis of Latent TGF-β1 by TGF-β1 ELISA requires dissociation of TGF-β1 from LAP, e.g. by acidification of samples. The ELISA then measures total TGF-β1, equivalent to dissociated Latent TGF-β1 plus any free TGF-β1 present prior to acidification. Evolutionary conservation of TGF-β1 across mammals also renders TGF-β1 ELISAs reactive with TGF-β1 in bovine serum often used in human cell cultures. To enable a direct analysis of Latent TGF-β1, monoclonal antibodies were made against LAP from human Latent TGF-β1 and used to develop a LAP ELISA detecting Latent TGF-β1. The ELISA did not react with LAP from human Latent TGF-β2 or 3, respectively, nor with Latent TGF-β in bovine serum. EDTA-containing plasma from healthy subjects (n=20) was analyzed by conventional TGF-β1 ELISA and LAP ELISA. By TGF-β1 ELISA, total TGF-β1 were detected in all samples (median 133pM, range 34-348pM); low levels of free TGF-β1 found in 8/20 non-acidified samples showed that >98.5% of the total TGF-β1 derived from Latent TGF-β1. Latent TGF-β1 found in non-acidified samples by LAP ELISA (median 154pM, range 48-403pM) was comparable in molar levels to, and correlated with, total TGF-β1 (rs 0.96, p<0.0001). A similar agreement between the total TGF-β1 and the LAP ELISA was found with citrate- and heparin-containing plasma. The LAP ELISA facilitates analysis of Latent TGF-β1 without sample acidification and is not compromised by the presence of bovine serum in human cell supernatants. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hallengard D.,Karolinska Institutet | Haller B.K.,Karolinska Institutet | Maltais A.-K.,CytoPulse science Inc. | Gelius E.,Mabtech | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

In vivo electroporation (EP) has proven to significantly increase plasmid transfection efficiency and to augment immune responses after immunization with plasmids. In this study, we attempted to establish an immunization protocol using intradermal (i.d.) EP. BALB/c mice were immunized with a plasmid encoding HIV-1 p37Gag, either i.d. with the Derma Vax EP device, intramuscularly (i.m.) without EP, or with combinations of both. A novel FluoroSpot assay was used to evaluate the vaccine-specific cellular immune responses. The study showed that i.d. EP immunizations induced stronger immune responses than i.m. immunizations using a larger amount of DNA and that repeated i.d. EP immunizations induced stronger immune responses than i.m. priming followed by i.d. EP boosting. Two and three i.d. EP immunizations induced immune responses of similar magnitude, and a short interval between immunizations was superior to a longer interval in terms of the magnitude of cellular immune responses. The FluoroSpot assay allowed for the quantification of vaccine-specific cells secreting either gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), or both, and the sensitivity of the assay was confirmed with IFN-γ and IL-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. The data obtained in this study can aid in the design of vaccine protocols using i.d. EP, and the results emphasize the advantages of the FluoroSpot assay over traditional ELISpot assay and intracellular staining for the detection and quantification of bifunctional vaccine-specific immune responses. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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