Nacka Strand, Sweden
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Hallengard D.,Karolinska Institutet | Haller B.K.,Karolinska Institutet | Maltais A.-K.,CytoPulse science Inc. | Gelius E.,Mabtech | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

In vivo electroporation (EP) has proven to significantly increase plasmid transfection efficiency and to augment immune responses after immunization with plasmids. In this study, we attempted to establish an immunization protocol using intradermal (i.d.) EP. BALB/c mice were immunized with a plasmid encoding HIV-1 p37Gag, either i.d. with the Derma Vax EP device, intramuscularly (i.m.) without EP, or with combinations of both. A novel FluoroSpot assay was used to evaluate the vaccine-specific cellular immune responses. The study showed that i.d. EP immunizations induced stronger immune responses than i.m. immunizations using a larger amount of DNA and that repeated i.d. EP immunizations induced stronger immune responses than i.m. priming followed by i.d. EP boosting. Two and three i.d. EP immunizations induced immune responses of similar magnitude, and a short interval between immunizations was superior to a longer interval in terms of the magnitude of cellular immune responses. The FluoroSpot assay allowed for the quantification of vaccine-specific cells secreting either gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), or both, and the sensitivity of the assay was confirmed with IFN-γ and IL-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. The data obtained in this study can aid in the design of vaccine protocols using i.d. EP, and the results emphasize the advantages of the FluoroSpot assay over traditional ELISpot assay and intracellular staining for the detection and quantification of bifunctional vaccine-specific immune responses. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Braesch-Andersen S.,Mabtech | Beckman L.,Mabtech | Beckman L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Paulie S.,Mabtech | Kumagai-Braesch M.,Karolinska Institutet
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Apolipoprotein (Apo) D is an important protein produced in many parts of the body. It is necessary for the development and repair of the brain and protection from oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which apoD interacts with lipoproteins in human plasma. By using detergent-free ELISA, we show that immobilized monoclonal antibodies against apoD very efficiently bind to low density lipoprotein (LDL) from plasma; this binding is as equally efficient as binding to an anti-apoB monoclonal antibody. Adding detergent to the plasma inhibited the binding, suggesting that the binding is dependent on the presence of intact lipoprotein particles. Reversing the system by using immobilized anti-apoB revealed that the affinity of apoD for LDL is rather low, suggesting that multiple bindings are needed for a durable connection. Biosensor experiments using purified lipoproteins also showed that purified apoD and high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3), a lipoprotein fraction rich in apoD, were both able to bind LDL very efficiently, indicating that the HDL3-LDL interaction may be a physiological consequence of the affinity of apoD for LDL. Furthermore, we found that apoD increases the binding of HDL to actively growing T24 bladder carcinoma cells but not to quiescent, contact-inhibited, confluent T24 cells. This result is especially intriguing given that the T24 supernatant only contained detectable levels of apoD after growth inhibition, raising the possibility that alternating the expression of apoD and a putative apoD-receptor could give direction to the flow of lipids. In the current paper, we conclude that apoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinomas, thereby highlighting the importance of apoD in lipid metabolism. © 2014 Braesch-Andersen et al.


Braesch-Andersen S.,Mabtech | Paulie S.,Mabtech | Smedman C.,Karolinska University Hospital | Mia S.,Karolinska University Hospital | Kumagai-Braesch M.,Karolinska Institutet
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The apoE production by tissue macrophages is crucial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and the aim of this study was to further elucidate how this apolipoprotein is regulated by cytokines present during inflammation. Here we studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14++CD16 -) and intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes being the main producers. As earlier described for macrophages, production was strongly upregulated by TGF-β and downregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β. We could here show that a similar down-regulatory effect was also observed with the type I interferon, IFN-α, while IL-6, often regarded as one of the more prominent inflammatory cytokines, did not affect TGF-β-induced apoE production. The TNF-α inhibitor Enbrel could partly block the down-regulatory effect of IFN-γ, IFN-α and IL-1β, indicating that inhibition of apoE by these cytokines may be dependent on or synergize with TNF-α. Other cytokines tested, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A and IL-23, had no inhibitory effect on apoE production. In contrast to the effect on monocytes, apoE production by primary hepatocytes and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 was more or less unaffected by treatment with cytokines or LPS. © 2013 Braesch-Andersen et al.


Lundberg M.,Karolinska Institutet | Curbo S.,Karolinska Institutet | Reiser K.,Karolinska Institutet | Masterman T.,Karolinska Institutet | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) is a protein antioxidant involved in major cellular processes. Increased plasma levels of Trx1 have been associated with human diseases suggesting that Trx1 is a marker for oxidative stress with putative clinical use. However, the reported mean levels of Trx1 in the control cohorts vary a hundred-fold between studies (0.8-87 ng/ml), possibly due to methodological differences between the capture ELISA used in the different studies. The aim of this study was to investigate methodological aspects related to the ELISA measurement of Trx1. ELISAs utilizing different capture and detection combinations of antibodies to Trx1 and as well as recombinant human (rh) Trx1 standards from two sources were characterized. The different ELISAs were subsequently used to measure Trx1 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from healthy donors and from patients with various neurological diagnoses. The Trx1 standards differed in their content of monomeric and oligomeric Trx1, which affected the ELISAs composed of different antibody combinations. Thus, the levels of Trx1 determined in human plasma and CSF samples varied depending on the antibody used in the ELISAs and on the rhTrx1 standard. Furthermore, the relevance of preventing interference by heterophilic antibodies (HA) in human plasma and CSF was investigated. The addition of a HA blocking buffer to human samples drastically reduced the ELISA signals in many samples showing that HA are likely to cause false positive results unless they are blocked. In conclusion, the study shows that the design of a Trx1 ELISA in regards to antibodies and standards used has an impact on the measured Trx1 levels. Importantly, analyses of human plasma and CSF without preventing HA interference may obscure the obtained data. Overall, the results of this study are crucial for the improvement of future studies on the association of Trx1 levels with various diseases. © 2014 Lundberg et al.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital and Mabtech
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Apolipoprotein (Apo) D is an important protein produced in many parts of the body. It is necessary for the development and repair of the brain and protection from oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which apoD interacts with lipoproteins in human plasma. By using detergent-free ELISA, we show that immobilized monoclonal antibodies against apoD very efficiently bind to low density lipoprotein (LDL) from plasma; this binding is as equally efficient as binding to an anti-apoB monoclonal antibody. Adding detergent to the plasma inhibited the binding, suggesting that the binding is dependent on the presence of intact lipoprotein particles. Reversing the system by using immobilized anti-apoB revealed that the affinity of apoD for LDL is rather low, suggesting that multiple bindings are needed for a durable connection. Biosensor experiments using purified lipoproteins also showed that purified apoD and high density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3), a lipoprotein fraction rich in apoD, were both able to bind LDL very efficiently, indicating that the HDL3-LDL interaction may be a physiological consequence of the affinity of apoD for LDL. Furthermore, we found that apoD increases the binding of HDL to actively growing T24 bladder carcinoma cells but not to quiescent, contact-inhibited, confluent T24 cells. This result is especially intriguing given that the T24 supernatant only contained detectable levels of apoD after growth inhibition, raising the possibility that alternating the expression of apoD and a putative apoD-receptor could give direction to the flow of lipids. In the current paper, we conclude that apoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinomas, thereby highlighting the importance of apoD in lipid metabolism.


Arestrom I.,Mabtech | Zuber B.,Mabtech | Bengtsson T.,Mabtech | Ahlborg N.,Mabtech | Ahlborg N.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2012

Human Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β1, one of three TGF-β isoforms, is a pleotropic cytokine critical for many physiological and immunological processes. TGF-β1 is secreted in a latent form, linked to Latency Associated Protein (LAP). Analysis of Latent TGF-β1 by TGF-β1 ELISA requires dissociation of TGF-β1 from LAP, e.g. by acidification of samples. The ELISA then measures total TGF-β1, equivalent to dissociated Latent TGF-β1 plus any free TGF-β1 present prior to acidification. Evolutionary conservation of TGF-β1 across mammals also renders TGF-β1 ELISAs reactive with TGF-β1 in bovine serum often used in human cell cultures. To enable a direct analysis of Latent TGF-β1, monoclonal antibodies were made against LAP from human Latent TGF-β1 and used to develop a LAP ELISA detecting Latent TGF-β1. The ELISA did not react with LAP from human Latent TGF-β2 or 3, respectively, nor with Latent TGF-β in bovine serum. EDTA-containing plasma from healthy subjects (n=20) was analyzed by conventional TGF-β1 ELISA and LAP ELISA. By TGF-β1 ELISA, total TGF-β1 were detected in all samples (median 133pM, range 34-348pM); low levels of free TGF-β1 found in 8/20 non-acidified samples showed that >98.5% of the total TGF-β1 derived from Latent TGF-β1. Latent TGF-β1 found in non-acidified samples by LAP ELISA (median 154pM, range 48-403pM) was comparable in molar levels to, and correlated with, total TGF-β1 (rs 0.96, p<0.0001). A similar agreement between the total TGF-β1 and the LAP ELISA was found with citrate- and heparin-containing plasma. The LAP ELISA facilitates analysis of Latent TGF-β1 without sample acidification and is not compromised by the presence of bovine serum in human cell supernatants. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zuber B.,Biovitrum | Rudstrom K.,Mabtech | Ehrnfelt C.,Mabtech | Ahlborg N.,Mabtech | Ahlborg N.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research | Year: 2016

Our aim was to identify conformational epitopes, recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) made against human (h) interferon (IFN)-γ. Based on the mAbs' (n = 12) ability to simultaneously bind hIFN-γ in ELISA, 2 epitope clusters with 5 mAbs in each were defined; 2 mAbs recognized unique epitopes. Utilizing the mAbs' lack of reactivity with bovine (b) IFN-γ, epitopes were identified using 7 h/bIFN-γ chimeras where the helical regions (A-F) or the C terminus were substituted with bIFN-γ residues. Chimeras had a N-terminal peptide tag enabling the analysis of mAb recognition of chimeras in ELISA. The 2 mAb clusters mapped to region A and E, respectively; the epitopes of several mAbs also involved additional regions. MAbs in cluster A neutralized, to various degrees, IFN-γ-mediated activation of human cells, in line with the involvement of region A in the IFN-γ receptor interaction. MAbs mapping to region E displayed a stronger neutralizing capacity although this region has not been directly implicated in the receptor interaction. The results corroborate earlier studies and provide a detailed picture of the link between the epitope specificity and neutralizing capacity of mAbs. They further demonstrate the general use of peptide-tagged chimeric proteins as a powerful and straightforward method for efficient mapping of conformational epitopes. © 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Mabtech
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

The apoE production by tissue macrophages is crucial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and the aim of this study was to further elucidate how this apolipoprotein is regulated by cytokines present during inflammation. Here we studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(+)CD16(+)) monocytes being the main producers. As earlier described for macrophages, production was strongly upregulated by TGF- and downregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inflammatory cytokines IFN-, TNF- and IL-1. We could here show that a similar down-regulatory effect was also observed with the type I interferon, IFN-, while IL-6, often regarded as one of the more prominent inflammatory cytokines, did not affect TGF--induced apoE production. The TNF- inhibitor Enbrel could partly block the down-regulatory effect of IFN-, IFN- and IL-1, indicating that inhibition of apoE by these cytokines may be dependent on or synergize with TNF-. Other cytokines tested, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A and IL-23, had no inhibitory effect on apoE production. In contrast to the effect on monocytes, apoE production by primary hepatocytes and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 was more or less unaffected by treatment with cytokines or LPS.


PubMed | Southwest Research Institute, University of Stockholm, Biovitrum and Mabtech
Type: | Journal: Journal of immunological methods | Year: 2016

Non-human primates (NHP) provide important animal models for studies on immune responses to infections and vaccines. When assessing cellular immunity in NHP, cytokines are almost exclusively analyzed utilizing cross-reactive anti-human antibodies. The functionality of antibodies has to be empirically established for each assay/application as well as NHP species. A rational approach was employed to identify monoclonal antibodies (mAb) cross-reactive with many NHP species. Panels of new and established mAbs against human Interferon (IFN)- and Interleukin (IL)-2 were assessed for reactivity with eukaryotically expressed recombinant IFN- and IL-2, respectively, from Old (rhesus, cynomolgus and pigtail macaques, African green monkey, sooty mangabey and baboon) and New World NHP (Mas night monkey, squirrel monkey and common marmoset). Pan-reactive mAbs, recognizing cytokines from all NHP species, were further analyzed in capture assays and flow cytometry with NHP peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Pan-reactive mAb pairs for IFN- well as IL-2 were identified and used in ELISA to measure IFN- and IL-2, respectively, in Old and New World NHP PBMC supernatants. The same mAb pairs displayed high functionality in ELISpot and FluoroSpot for the measurement of antigen-specific IFN- and IL-2 responses using cynomolgus PBMC. Functionality of pan-reactive mAbs in flow cytometry was also verified with cynomolgus PBMC. The development of well-defined immunoassays functional with a panel of NHP species facilitates improved analyses of cellular immunity and enables inclusion in multiplex cytokine assays intended for a variety of NHP.


PubMed | Mabtech
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of immunological methods | Year: 2012

Human Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-1, one of three TGF- isoforms, is a pleotropic cytokine critical for many physiological and immunological processes. TGF-1 is secreted in a latent form, linked to Latency Associated Protein (LAP). Analysis of Latent TGF-1 by TGF-1 ELISA requires dissociation of TGF-1 from LAP, e.g. by acidification of samples. The ELISA then measures total TGF-1, equivalent to dissociated Latent TGF-1 plus any free TGF-1 present prior to acidification. Evolutionary conservation of TGF-1 across mammals also renders TGF-1 ELISAs reactive with TGF-1 in bovine serum often used in human cell cultures. To enable a direct analysis of Latent TGF-1, monoclonal antibodies were made against LAP from human Latent TGF-1 and used to develop a LAP ELISA detecting Latent TGF-1. The ELISA did not react with LAP from human Latent TGF-2 or 3, respectively, nor with Latent TGF- in bovine serum. EDTA-containing plasma from healthy subjects (n=20) was analyzed by conventional TGF-1 ELISA and LAP ELISA. By TGF-1 ELISA, total TGF-1 were detected in all samples (median 133 pM, range 34-348 pM); low levels of free TGF-1 found in 8/20 non-acidified samples showed that >98.5% of the total TGF-1 derived from Latent TGF-1. Latent TGF-1 found in non-acidified samples by LAP ELISA (median 154 pM, range 48-403 pM) was comparable in molar levels to, and correlated with, total TGF-1 (r(s) 0.96, p<0.0001). A similar agreement between the total TGF-1 and the LAP ELISA was found with citrate- and heparin-containing plasma. The LAP ELISA facilitates analysis of Latent TGF-1 without sample acidification and is not compromised by the presence of bovine serum in human cell supernatants.

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