Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center

Abegondo, Spain

Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center

Abegondo, Spain

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Centeno J.A.,University of Vigo | Garabal J.I.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Docampo F.,Alimentos Ruta Xacobea | Lorenzo J.M.,Centro Tecnologico Of La Carne Of Galicia | Carballo J.,University of Vigo
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2017

The rationale of the present study was to evaluate the potential of microbial adjunct cultures including Kocuria varians and/or Yarrowia lipolytica strains in the recovery of the typical sensory profile of traditional (raw-milk) Tetilla cheese. Four batches of Tetilla cheese, a short ripened cows' milk cheese produced in Galicia (NW Spain), were made in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with different microbial cultures. A control batch was manufactured by adding a mesophilic commercial D-starter only. The other three batches were made with the same starter after a cheese-milk pre-ripening step carried out with (i) an adjunct culture of K. varians, (ii) an adjunct culture of Y. lipolytica, or (iii) a combination of both adjunct cultures. The highest pH and water activity values, associated with softer textures were determined in the cheeses manufactured with the Y. lipolytica adjunct after 21 days of ripening. The contents of the volatile compounds 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were higher in the cheeses made with only the K. varians adjunct than in the cheeses made with the only yeast adjunct and in the control cheeses. The contents of hexanoic and octanoic acids were highest in the cheeses made with the Y. lipolytica adjunct, and levels of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate were higher in the cheeses made with only the yeast adjunct than in the other batches of cheese. The cheeses manufactured with both adjunct cultures were awarded the highest scores for flavour and overall sensory parameters (considering the standards of the traditional product) and were considered very similar to ‘good quality’ artisanal raw-milk cheeses. We conclude that use of selected Micrococcaceae and Y. lipolytica strains as adjunct cultures would differentiate the sensory properties and contribute to the quality and typicality of the short-ripened rennet-curd Galician Tetilla and Arzúa-Ulloa cheeses. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Gilsanz C.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Baez D.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Misselbrook T.H.,Rothamsted Research | Dhanoa M.S.,Rothamsted Research | Cardenas L.M.,Rothamsted Research
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG). The main sources of N2O emissions are nitrogen fertilizer and manure applications to agricultural fields. Many field studies have tested the effectiveness of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) to reduce N2O emissions but results varied considerably because the studies were carried out under different climate and soil conditions. We conducted this analysis (consisting of 111 datasets from 39 studies published in peer-reviewed journals up to 2014) about two of the most common NIs. Dicyadiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) were studied to determine the variability in their efficiency and the effect of environmental parameters on this efficiency under field conditions. Both NIs were effective in reducing N2O emissions; the inhibitory effect for DCD was 42.3% ±2.2 and for DMPP was 40.2% ±3.7, with emission factors (EF) for N amendment with DCD or DMPP of 0.41% ±0.05 and 0.7% ±0.33, respectively. We also analysed the EF and the inhibitory effect across four different land uses, seven different soil textures and ten fertilizer types. The lowest EF for the NI-amended treatments was for paddy followed by upland and cropland and the highest for grassland. Our meta-analysis showed the highest inhibitory effect was on grassland (40.9% ±5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.0% to 52.9%) followed by cropland (34.3% ±4.6, 95% CI 23.6% to 46.0%), upland 27.0% ±4.5 (95% CI 16.5% to 36.9%) and paddy 26.5% ±6.9 (95% CI 5.5% to 47.6%). In general, soil textures with low clay content (less than 50%) and with sand content greater than 50% had the lowest EFs. However, soil texture had little effect on the inhibitory effect. In addition, both NIs were effective with almost all fertiliser types included in the analysis. © 2015.


Louro A.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Baez D.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Garcia M.I.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Cardenas L.,Rothamsted Research
Geoderma Regional | Year: 2015

Abstract We conducted a field experiment in Galicia (NW Spain) to quantify N2O emissions derived from fertilization practices carried out by local farmers growing forage maize (Zea mays L.). Forage maize was cultivated in a silt loam soil during 2008 and 2009, in different locations each year. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored during the whole growing season after the application of the following treatments: no N application (CN); 125 kg N ha-1 NPK at sowing and 75 kg granulated urea at top dressing (MN); 200 kg N ha-1 injected cattle slurry (CS) and 200 kg N ha-1 injected pig slurry (PS), with both slurry treatments applied at sowing. We observed that although fertilization significantly increased losses of N as N2O, the type of fertilizer did not significantly affect the total cumulative N2O emissions in either year. This could have been due to the high native soil C content in both experimental sites. Total cumulative N2O emissions from N fertilized treatments ranged from 19.8 to 20.5 kg N ha-1 in 2008 and 10.8 to 11.7 kg N ha-1 in 2009, with the period between sowing and top dressing being the largest contributor. Nitrification probably caused the N2O fluxes observed in the days following the application of N fertilizers in May, however the largest losses of N2O were observed at optimal soil conditions for denitrification. Variations in N2O fluxes between crop seasons could be attributed, in the first instance, to more N2 rather than N2O production during 2009, a consequence of the larger soil water filled pore space (>80%WFPS) during most of the sampling period. Another cause was probably the periods of soil rewetting observed in 2008, which triggered the largest N2O fluxes observed and contributed to approximately 40% of the total cumulative N2O emissions. The use of slurries or mineral fertilizer resulted in similar yield scaled N2O emissions in both years. At a target N rate of 200 kg N ha-1 these were in the range 1.18-1.23 kg N2O-N Mg-1 DM in 2008 and 0.51-0.58 kg N2O-N Mg-1 DM in 2009. This study highlights the need to increase the knowledge of initial soil N contents at the moment of the N application and the dynamics of soil organic matter mineralization to adapt N rates to efficiently meet crop demands, especially in the period between sowing and top dressing application when demands are small. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Louro A.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Cardenas L.M.,Rothamsted Research | Garcia M.I.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center | Baez D.,Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The number of studies that investigate how agricultural practices on dairy farms in the North West (NW) of Spain affect greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from soils is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the application of mineral fertilizers and cattle slurry injections on GHG fluxes from a grassland soil with grazing dairy cattle, in Galicia (NW Spain). We also aimed to identify the type of fertilizer associated with high grass production and low GHG fluxes. To achieve this, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), grass yields and soil mineral nitrogen (N) contents were monitored after three applications (in spring, summer and autumn) of surface broadcasted mineral fertilizer (MN) and injected cattle slurry (CS) and compared with no fertilization (zero N). Dry soil conditions (< 60% water-filled pore space (WFPS)) were observed during the spring and summer, contrasting with the higher soil WFPS (> 60%) in autumn due to the more frequent rainfall. Overall, total cumulative N2O fluxes from CS were similar than from MN (P > 0.05), indicating that denitrification in this C-rich soil was not stimulated by slurry-carbon applications. Large losses of CH4 and CO2 were related to CS, but overall only total cumulative CH4 fluxes were larger with respect to MN (P < 0.05). Dry weather conditions would have stimulated organic matter mineralization in this soil, which resulted in the low efficiency of both fertilizers to increase yields. As we obtained similar total CO2 equivalents to produce same yields with both types of fertilization (P > 0.05), this study did not show a clear type of fertilization related to low GHG fluxes and high yields. We believe that longer-term studies are required to provide more robust estimations and conclusions about the effect of fertilizer applications on GHG fluxes from grassland soils in NW Spain. © 2016


PubMed | Mabegondo Agricultural Research Center and Rothamsted Research
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

The number of studies that investigate how agricultural practices on dairy farms in the North West (NW) of Spain affect greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from soils is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the application of mineral fertilizers and cattle slurry injections on GHG fluxes from a grassland soil with grazing dairy cattle, in Galicia (NW Spain). We also aimed to identify the type of fertilizer associated with high grass production and low GHG fluxes. To achieve this, fluxes of nitrous oxide (N

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