Maastricht, Netherlands
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Cline B.H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cline B.H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cline B.H.,University of Burgundy | Cline B.H.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 18 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2015

Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the brain are involved in neuropsychiatric pathologies, including depression. 14- or 28-day chronic stress model induced a depressive syndrome defined by lowered reward sensitivity in C57BL/6J mice and changed gene expression of peroxidation enzymes as shown in microarray assays. We studied how susceptibility or resilience to anhedonia is related to lipid peroxidation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). With 14-day stress, a comparison of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) revealed a decrease of the first two measures in susceptible, but not in resilient animals or in stressed mice chronically dosed with imipramine (7. mg/kg/day). Acute stress elevated activity of CAT and SOD and dynamics of MDA accumulation in the PFC that was prevented by imipramine (30. mg/kg). 28-day stress evoked anhedonia lasting two but not five weeks while behavioural invigoration was detected at the latter time point in anhedonic but not non-anhedonic mice; enhanced aggressive traits were observed in both groups. After two weeks of a stress-free period, CAT and SOD activity levels in the PFC were reduced in anhedonic animals; after five weeks, only CAT was diminished. Thus, in the present chronic stress depression paradigm, lasting alterations in brain peroxidation occur not only during anhedonia but also in the recovery period and are accompanied by behavioural abnormalities in mice. This mimics behavioural and neurochemical deficits observed in depressed patients during remission which could be used to develop remedies preventing their relapse. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Markova N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Chernopiatko A.,Timantti AB | Schroeter C.A.,Maastricht Medical Center in Annadal | Malin D.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 9 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Central thyroid hormone signaling is important in brain function/dysfunction, including affective disorders and depression. In contrast to 3,3′,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the role of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), which until recently was considered an inactive metabolite of T3, has not been studied in these pathologies. However, both T3 and T2 stimulate mitochondrial respiration, a factor counteracting the pathogenesis of depressive disorder, but the cellular origins in the CNS, mechanisms, and kinetics of the cellular action for these two hormones are distinct and independent of each other. Here, Illumina and RT PCR assays showed that hippocampal gene expression of deiodinases 2 and 3, enzymes involved in thyroid hormone regulation, is increased in resilience to stress-induced depressive syndrome and after antidepressant treatment in mice that might suggest elevated T2 and T3 turnover in these phenotypes. In a separate experiment, bolus administration of T2 at the doses 750 and 1500 mcg/kg but not 250 mcg/kg in naive mice reduced immobility in a two-day tail suspension test in various settings without changing locomotion or anxiety. This demonstrates an antidepressant-like effect of T2 that could be exploited clinically. In a wider context, the current study suggests important central functions of T2, whose biological role only lately is becoming to be elucidated. © 2013 Natalyia Markova et al.


Costa-Nunes J.,Maastricht University | Costa-Nunes J.,New University of Lisbon | Zubareva O.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Araujo-Correia M.,Maastricht University | And 13 more authors.
Stress | Year: 2014

N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission in the hippocampus is implicated in cognitive and emotional disturbances during stress-related disorders. Here, using quantitative RT-PCR, we investigated the hippocampal expression of NR2A, NR2B and NR1 subunit mRNAs in a mouse stress paradigm that mimics clinically relevant conditions of simultaneously affected emotionality and hippocampus-dependent functions. A 2-week stress procedure, which comprised ethologically valid stressors, exposure to a rat and social defeat, was applied to male C57BL/6J mice. For predation stress, mice were introduced into transparent containers that were placed in a rat home cage during the night; social defeat was applied during the daytime using aggressive CD1 mice. This treatment impaired hippocampus-dependent performance during contextual fear conditioning. A correlation between this behavior and food displacement performance was demonstrated, suggesting that burrowing behavior is affected by the stress procedure and is hippocampus-dependent. Stressed mice (n=22) showed behavioral invigoration and anomalous anxiolytic-like profiles in the O-maze and brightly illuminated open field, unaltered short-term memory in the step-down avoidance task and enhanced aggressive traits, as compared to non-stressed mice (n=10). Stressed mice showed increased basal serum corticosterone concentrations, hippocampal mRNA expression for the NR2A subunit of the NMDAR and in the NR2A/NR2B ratio; mRNA expression of NR2B and NR1 was unchanged. Thus, stress-induced aberrations in both hippocampal-dependent performance and emotional abnormalities are associated with alterations in hippocampal mRNA NR2A levels and the NR2A/NR2B ratio and not with mRNA expression of NR2B or NR1. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


PubMed | Timantti AB, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Maastricht Medical Center in Annadal, Russian Academy of Sciences and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2014

Central thyroid hormone signaling is important in brain function/dysfunction, including affective disorders and depression. In contrast to 3,3,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the role of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), which until recently was considered an inactive metabolite of T3, has not been studied in these pathologies. However, both T3 and T2 stimulate mitochondrial respiration, a factor counteracting the pathogenesis of depressive disorder, but the cellular origins in the CNS, mechanisms, and kinetics of the cellular action for these two hormones are distinct and independent of each other. Here, Illumina and RT PCR assays showed that hippocampal gene expression of deiodinases 2 and 3, enzymes involved in thyroid hormone regulation, is increased in resilience to stress-induced depressive syndrome and after antidepressant treatment in mice that might suggest elevated T2 and T3 turnover in these phenotypes. In a separate experiment, bolus administration of T2 at the doses 750 and 1,500 mcg/kg but not 250 mcg/kg in naive mice reduced immobility in a two-day tail suspension test in various settings without changing locomotion or anxiety. This demonstrates an antidepressant-like effect of T2 that could be exploited clinically. In a wider context, the current study suggests important central functions of T2, whose biological role only lately is becoming to be elucidated.


PubMed | Maastricht Medical Center in Annadal
Type: | Journal: Behavioural brain research | Year: 2013

Tricyclics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are probably the most widely employed reference antidepressants in animal studies on depression. Using imipramine and citalopram, we sought to assess which drug would be more appropriate as pharmacological reference in paradigms of depression in C57BL6N mice by measuring their effect on liquid consumption, home cage activity, body weight and long-term memory in nave animals treated with each compound at generally used dose of 15 mg/kg/day. Continuous logging of home cage movement, weekly monitoring of vertical activity in a novel cage, and body weight was recorded during four-week treatment period and for four weeks after discontinuation of the antidepressant; sucrose preference was evaluated at weekly intervals during drug administration. A novel object recognition memory test was performed in mice treated the antidepressants for two weeks. Compared to control, imipramine-treated mice displayed increased sucrose and water intake, as well as enhanced home-cage and novelty exploration activities, and reduced body weight. Imipramine also impaired learning in the object recognition task, but citalopram diminished object exploration sufficiently to invalidate the test. Citalopram-treated animals demonstrated no changes in a sucrose test and had elevated body mass. Thus basic physiological and behavioral outcomes in nave mice were significantly altered by the chronic administration of imipramine and, to a lesser extent, citalopram. As altered variables are crucial for the evaluation of antidepressant-like effects in mice, our data suggest that, at commonly used doses, both drugs must be applied in mouse models of depression with caution.

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