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Narok, Kenya

Wambu E.W.,University of Eldoret | Omwoyo W.N.,Maasai Mara University | Akenga T.,University of Eldoret
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27 % of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38 %), piped water (33 %) and spring water (25 %). It was estimated that 18.2 % of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Lutz H.L.,Cornell University | Patterson B.D.,Science and Education | Kerbis Peterhans J.C.,Science and Education | Kerbis Peterhans J.C.,Roosevelt University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Phylogenies of parasites provide hypotheses on the history of their movements between hosts, leading to important insights regarding the processes of host switching that underlie modern-day epidemics. Haemosporidian (malaria) parasites lack a well resolved phylogeny, which has impeded the study of evolutionary processes associated with host-switching in this group. Here we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis that suggests bats served as the ancestral hosts of malaria parasites in primates and rodents. Expanding upon current taxon sampling of Afrotropical bat and bird parasites, we find strong support for all major nodes in the haemosporidian tree using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Our analyses support a single transition of haemosporidian parasites from saurian to chiropteran hosts, and do not support a monophyletic relationship between Plasmodium parasites of birds and mammals. We find, for the first time, that Hepatocystis and Plasmodium parasites of mammals represent reciprocally monophyletic evolutionary lineages. These results highlight the importance of broad taxonomic sampling when analyzing phylogenetic relationships, and have important implications for our understanding of key host switching events in the history of malaria parasite evolution. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Afullo A.O.,Maasai Mara University | Afullo A.O.,North Central College
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management | Year: 2015

Nairobi's residential areas are chocked with garbage. It was hypothesized that residents exhibit a "Not in My Backyard" (NIMBY) and "Not in my terms of office" (NIMTO) syndromes, with challenges in willingness and ability to pay (WATP) for improved solid waste management (SWM) services. 30 key informant interviews, 20 Focus group discussions, and pre-tested HH questionnaires were administered in two phases in 2007 and 2010, using sample sizes of 430 and 600 Households respectively. At most 39% residents were able to pay for improved SWM services. In 2007, 78% of Nairobi HHs had no SWM service, and by 2010, 70% had it. The effective demand is exhibited by the US$ 1.53 they are WATP for monthly garbage collection, maintained at statistically the same level in 2010. Open dumping as the proxy indicator of NIMBY had a prevalence of under 30% down from over 70% in 2007. There was also evidence HHs exhibited the NIMTO syndrome, with 54% proposing the government, NCC or a sponsor purchases them a household bin. There is need for intensive public education on SWM, so that households, through CBOs, directly participate in urban neighbourhood cleaning, and venture into waste for wealth through informal sector incorporation into environmental management. Source

Walingo M.K.,Maasai Mara University | Mutuli L.A.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Great efforts have been made to enhance breast-feeding among mothers of infants, yet there is a continued decline in breast-feeding behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior emphasizes that human behavior is governed by personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control. A study was set up to assess the influence of maternal beliefs, attitude, intention and perceived behavior control on breast-feeding behavior of mothers aged between 18-40 years of infants (≤1 year old) in western Kenya based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A total sample of 230 breast-feeding mothers attending post natal clinics were randomly selected and were the respondents who provided information on the selected variables of the study. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability and exploratory factor analysis used to assess validity. Skewness and kurtosis were used to assess for the normality of the obtained data. Structural equation modeling (AMOS version 7) was used to determine the predictive power of maternal attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on breast-feeding behavior. Maternal attitude (β= 0.38, p<0.01), perceived behavioral control (β = 0.35, p<0.01) and subjective norm (β = 0.25, p<0.001) predicted the mother's intention to breast-feed. Intention (β = 0.95, p<0.001) was a strong predictor of breast-feeding behavior. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2014. Source

Walingo M.K.,Maasai Mara University | Mutuli L.A.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study was set up to understand breast-feeding behavior of mothers using a developed culture-specific tool grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in western Kenya. The methods used in the study were Mixed Methods Approaches, in-depth interviews and FGDs. About 230 breast-feeding mothers (18-40 years) attending Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives were randomly selected for participation in the study. Data analysis was done using Factor analysis, Principle Component Analysis with Varimax rotation. The averages of intention, perceived behavioral control-2 and subjective norm communalities were 0.76, 0.82 and 0.78, respectively. A unit increase in maternal attitude and in perceived behavioral control resulted in a 4.93 units decrease of breast-feeding intention on early initiation of breast-feeding within the first hour of birth (p = 0.0296) and a 36.44 unit's decrease breast-feeding intention on initiation of breast­feeding within the first hour of birth (p = 0.0151), respectively. These results supported content and construct validity and the tool was useful in measuring factors influencing breast-feeding behaviour. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015. Source

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