Narok, Kenya

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PubMed | Science & Education, Cornell University, University of Professional Studies and Maasai Mara University
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2016

Phylogenies of parasites provide hypotheses on the history of their movements between hosts, leading to important insights regarding the processes of host switching that underlie modern-day epidemics. Haemosporidian (malaria) parasites lack a well resolved phylogeny, which has impeded the study of evolutionary processes associated with host-switching in this group. Here we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis that suggests bats served as the ancestral hosts of malaria parasites in primates and rodents. Expanding upon current taxon sampling of Afrotropical bat and bird parasites, we find strong support for all major nodes in the haemosporidian tree using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Our analyses support a single transition of haemosporidian parasites from saurian to chiropteran hosts, and do not support a monophyletic relationship between Plasmodium parasites of birds and mammals. We find, for the first time, that Hepatocystis and Plasmodium parasites of mammals represent reciprocally monophyletic evolutionary lineages. These results highlight the importance of broad taxonomic sampling when analyzing phylogenetic relationships, and have important implications for our understanding of key host switching events in the history of malaria parasite evolution.


PubMed | Kenya Wildlife Trust, University of Aarhus, University of Nairobi and Maasai Mara University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2017

With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985-2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the regions role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.


Wambu E.W.,University of Eldoret | Omwoyo W.N.,Maasai Mara University | Akenga T.,University of Eldoret
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2016

Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27 % of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38 %), piped water (33 %) and spring water (25 %). It was estimated that 18.2 % of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Walingo M.K.,Maasai Mara University | Sewe T.,Maasai Mara University
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Malnutrition among preschool children is an indicator of underdevelopment and is high in many developing communities. Malnutrition affects performance of children in the later adulthood life. Though determinants of malnutrition vary from region to region, the underlying cause for malnutrition is poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify prevalence and determinants of nutrition status of preschool children in the Rift Valley in Kenya. Mothers of these children were respondents who provided information on selected variables. Nutrition status was measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. General prevalence of malnutrition was still high in this population, with more males than females having poor nutrition status as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Risk factors for malnutrition in this population were age, sex, education level of the head of household, time taken by women on other household chores (especially collecting fuel wood), number of pregnancies a mother has had, income of the head of household and income from cash crop farming. Education level of household heads could improve nutrition through appreciating the role of good nutrition for child development and availing resources at the household level for adequate nutrition and health. The major determinants of malnutrition included time spent on household chores (30%), income (12%) and gender (10%). © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.


Walingo M.K.,Maasai Mara University | Mutuli L.A.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Great efforts have been made to enhance breast-feeding among mothers of infants, yet there is a continued decline in breast-feeding behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior emphasizes that human behavior is governed by personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control. A study was set up to assess the influence of maternal beliefs, attitude, intention and perceived behavior control on breast-feeding behavior of mothers aged between 18-40 years of infants (≤1 year old) in western Kenya based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A total sample of 230 breast-feeding mothers attending post natal clinics were randomly selected and were the respondents who provided information on the selected variables of the study. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability and exploratory factor analysis used to assess validity. Skewness and kurtosis were used to assess for the normality of the obtained data. Structural equation modeling (AMOS version 7) was used to determine the predictive power of maternal attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on breast-feeding behavior. Maternal attitude (β= 0.38, p<0.01), perceived behavioral control (β = 0.35, p<0.01) and subjective norm (β = 0.25, p<0.001) predicted the mother's intention to breast-feed. Intention (β = 0.95, p<0.001) was a strong predictor of breast-feeding behavior. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2014.


Walingo M.K.,Maasai Mara University | Mutuli L.A.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

This study was set up to understand breast-feeding behavior of mothers using a developed culture-specific tool grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in western Kenya. The methods used in the study were Mixed Methods Approaches, in-depth interviews and FGDs. About 230 breast-feeding mothers (18-40 years) attending Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives were randomly selected for participation in the study. Data analysis was done using Factor analysis, Principle Component Analysis with Varimax rotation. The averages of intention, perceived behavioral control-2 and subjective norm communalities were 0.76, 0.82 and 0.78, respectively. A unit increase in maternal attitude and in perceived behavioral control resulted in a 4.93 units decrease of breast-feeding intention on early initiation of breast-feeding within the first hour of birth (p = 0.0296) and a 36.44 unit's decrease breast-feeding intention on initiation of breast­feeding within the first hour of birth (p = 0.0151), respectively. These results supported content and construct validity and the tool was useful in measuring factors influencing breast-feeding behaviour. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2015.


Afullo A.O.,Maasai Mara University | Afullo A.O.,North Central College
Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management | Year: 2015

Nairobi's residential areas are chocked with garbage. It was hypothesized that residents exhibit a "Not in My Backyard" (NIMBY) and "Not in my terms of office" (NIMTO) syndromes, with challenges in willingness and ability to pay (WATP) for improved solid waste management (SWM) services. 30 key informant interviews, 20 Focus group discussions, and pre-tested HH questionnaires were administered in two phases in 2007 and 2010, using sample sizes of 430 and 600 Households respectively. At most 39% residents were able to pay for improved SWM services. In 2007, 78% of Nairobi HHs had no SWM service, and by 2010, 70% had it. The effective demand is exhibited by the US$ 1.53 they are WATP for monthly garbage collection, maintained at statistically the same level in 2010. Open dumping as the proxy indicator of NIMBY had a prevalence of under 30% down from over 70% in 2007. There was also evidence HHs exhibited the NIMTO syndrome, with 54% proposing the government, NCC or a sponsor purchases them a household bin. There is need for intensive public education on SWM, so that households, through CBOs, directly participate in urban neighbourhood cleaning, and venture into waste for wealth through informal sector incorporation into environmental management.


Mabwoga S.O.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Mabwoga S.O.,Maasai Mara University | Thukral A.K.,Guru Nanak Dev University
Journal of the Korean Physical Society | Year: 2014

The increasing population in the developing countries has rendered wetlands vulnerable to land use changes. Remote sensing offers a rapid and efficient means of data acquisition of ecosystems in time and space. The present study was undertaken to identify changes in the Harike wetland, a Ramsar site in the state of Punjab, India; and identify causal factors, as well as vulnerable areas threatened from the land cover changes. Unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data of 16-10-1989, 22-10-2000 and 26-10-2010. Images were classified into five land cover classes (1) Waterbody, (2) Wetland I, (3) Wetland II, (4) Barren land and (5) Agricultural land. Land cover change is characterized mainly by a decrease in the wetland area, as indicated by decrease in wetland vegetation and an increase in non-wetland areas, characterized by increasing agricultural and barren land areas. Overall, the wetland shrunk by 13% from 1989 to 2010, with the north-eastern side experiencing maximum shrinkage. The wetland needs immediate reclamation to check it from further shrinkage so as to save its biodiversity. © 2014, Mabwoga and Thukral; licensee Springer.


Kinanga R.,Maasai Mara University | Cheruiyot A.C.,Maasai Mara University
Proceedings of the 24th International Business Information Management Association Conference - Crafting Global Competitive Economies: 2020 Vision Strategic Planning and Smart Implementation | Year: 2014

The concept of reduction of employees through downsizing has been in existence for a while now however, its effect on employee or organizational performance has brought mixed reactions in both developed and developing countries. This quagmire has led to a lot of uncertainty while considering downsizing as a tool of enhancing organizational performance. Therefore, this study sought to find out the effect reduction of employees as a downsizing strategy on performance of employees of Barclays bank hypothesized as there is no relationship between reduction of employees and employee performance. The study adopted a survey research design. The study targeted a sample of 183 employees of Barclays Bank South Rift Hub, Kenya. All the accessible employees in the South Rift Hub were involved in this study. Questionnaires were used as the sole data collection instrument. The data that was collected from the field was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings established that there was a strong positive correlation of 0.982 between reduction of employees and the dependent variable employee performance. From the findings the study recommends that organizations that aim at improving the performance of their employees need to consider applying downsizing. The results of this study shall therefore benefit the management of commercial banks in Kenya to understand the effects of downsizing and put in place appropriate strategies to ensure that only the positive effects leading to improved performance are emphasized.


PubMed | University of Nairobi and Maasai Mara University
Type: | Journal: International journal of microbiology | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of

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