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Fish V.L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Muehlbrad T.C.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Muehlbrad T.C.,Texas Lutheran University | Pratap P.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal

ClassI methanol masers are believed to be produced in the shock-excited environment around star-forming regions. Many authors have argued that the appearance of various subsets of classI masers may be indicative of specific evolutionary stages of star formation or excitation conditions. Until recently, however, no major interferometer was capable of imaging the important 36 GHz transition. We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the 36 GHz methanol masers and Submillimeter Array observations of the 229 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH), DR21N, and DR21W. The distribution of 36 GHz masers in the outflow of DR21(OH) is similar to that of the other classI methanol transitions, with numerous multitransition spatial overlaps. At the site of the main continuum source in DR21(OH), classI masers at 36 and 229 GHz are found in virtual overlap with classII 6.7 GHz masers. To the south of the outflow, the 36 GHz masers are scattered over a large region but usually do not appear coincident with 44 GHz masers. In DR21W, we detect an "S-curve" signature in Stokes V that implies a large value of the magnetic field strength if interpreted as due to Zeeman splitting, suggesting either that classI masers may exist at higher densities than previously believed or that the direct Zeeman interpretation of S-curve Stokes V profiles in classI masers may be incorrect. We find a diverse variety of different maser phenomena in these sources, suggestive of differing physical conditions among them. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Rule E.,Johns Hopkins University | Loeb A.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Strelnitski V.S.,Ma-Maria
Astrophysical Journal Letters

We investigate the prospects of blind and targeted searches in the radio domain (10 MHz to 1 THz) for high-n hydrogen recombination lines from the first generation of galaxies, at z ≲ 10. The expected optically thin spontaneous α-line luminosities are calculated as a function of the absolute AB magnitude of a galaxy at 1500 Å. For a blind search, semi-empirical luminosity functions are used to calculate the number of galaxies whose expected flux densities exceed an assumed detectability threshold. Plots of the minimum sky area, within which at least one detectable galaxy is expected at a given observing frequency, in the fiducial instantaneous passband of 104 km s-1, allow us to assess the blind search time necessary for detection by a given facility. We show that the chances for detection are the highest in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, but finding spontaneous emission in a blind search, especially from redshifts z ≫ 1, is a challenge even with powerful facilities, such as the Actama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array and Square Kilometre Array. The probability of success is higher for a targeted search of lines with principal quantum number n ∼ 10 in Lyman-break galaxies amplified by gravitational lensing. Detection of more than one hydrogen line in such a galaxy will allow for line identification and a precise determination of the galaxy's redshift. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Wang Q.,Peking University | Wang Q.,New York University | Peng E.W.,Peking University | Blakeslee J.P.,National Research Council Canada | And 7 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal

We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation (ε > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (Mz < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Miranda Jr. H.C.,Texas Southern University | Brooks D.M.,Houston Museum of Natural Science | Kennedy R.S.,Ma-Maria
Wilson Journal of Ornithology

We constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the pattern of colonization of Philippine scops owls (Otus and Mimizuku). Two mitochondrial genes, ND2 and cytochrome b, were sequenced for 12 samples representing six Philippine endemic taxa: three endemic species, one of which has three endemic subspecies; and one endemic genus. Topology, branch length information, and sequence divergence were used to present the hypothesis for the pattern, direction, and sequence of island colonization events. Philippine scops owls are in two well-supported clades, consistent with at least two independent colonization routes. One route is represented by the montane clade of Otus sunia, O. longicornis, and O. mirus. The other clade is represented by three subspecies of the lowland O. megalotis. The basal position of Mimizuku gurneyi relative to the megalotis clade suggests early colonization of Mindanao. Branch lengths and sequence divergence data are congruent with the morphological differences among the megalotis races. The three races of megalotis differed in 15 of 16 morphological characters. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we recognize the following Otus megalotis subspecies as full species: Luzon Lowland Scops Owl (O. megalotis), Mindanao Lowland Scops Owl (O. everetti), and Visayan Lowland Scops Owl (O. nigrorum). We also propose reassigning the Giant Scops Owl (Mimizuku gurneyi) to the genus Otus for phyletic consistency. © 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society. Source

Vanderbeke J.,Ghent University | Vanderbeke J.,European Southern Observatory | De Propris R.,University of Turku | De Rijcke S.,Ghent University | And 5 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

We use our Galactic Globular Cluster Catalog (G2C2) photometry for 111 Galactic globular clusters (GCs) in g and z, as well as r and i photometry for a subset of 60 GCs and u photometry for 22 GCs, to determine the structural parameters assuming King models. In general, the resulting core radii are in good comparison with the current literature values. However, our half-light radii are slightly lower than the literature. The concentrations (and therefore also the tidal radii) are poorly constrained mostly because of the limited radial extent of our imaging. Therefore, we extensively discuss the effects of a limited field of view on the derived parameters using mosaicked Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, which do not suffer from this restriction. We also illustrate how red giant branch (RGB) stars in cluster cores can stochastically induce artificial peaks in the surface brightness profiles. The issues related to these bright stars are scrutinized based on both our photometry and simulated clusters. We also examine colour gradients and find that the strongest central colour gradients are caused by central RGB stars and thus not representative for the cluster light or colour distribution.We recover the known relation between the half-light radius and the Galactocentric distance in the g band, but find a lower slope for redder filters. We did not find a correlation between the scatter on this relation and other cluster properties.We find tentative evidence for a correlation between the half-light radii and the [Fe/H], with metal-poor GCs being larger than metal-rich GCs. However, we conclude that this trend is caused by the position of the clusters in the Galaxy, with metal-rich clusters being more centrally located. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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