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Brandt G.,MA
Anthropologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2013

Between 2005 and 2010 new efforts have been undertaken to shed light on the life and death of Tutankhamun - for the first time with the aid of modern scientific methods like CT scans and DNA analysis. The publication of a paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association in February 2010, that stated the famous pharaoh died of a combination of Malaria and Köhler's disease II, provoked objections from various sides. Based on new and existing findings, the author has developed the theory that Tutankhamun might, instead, have suffered from hypophosphatasia, an inherited metabolic disorder that affects especially the musculo-skeletal system in many ways. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) can be highly variable in its clinical manifestations and can be difficult to diagnose. The author has compiled both medical and archaeological findings to support his theory and suggests that existing DNA samples of Tutankhamun and other members of his family should be tested for defects on the ALPL gene. © 2013 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.

Silver J.K.,MA | Baima J.,Harvard Medical SchoolStaff Physiatrist
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2013

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Adult cancer survivors suffer an extremely diverse and complex set of impairments, affecting virtually every organ system. Both physical and psychological impairments may contribute to a decreased health-related quality of life and should be identified throughout the care continuum. Recent evidence suggests that more cancer survivors have a reduced health-related quality of life as a result of physical impairments than due to psychological ones. Research has also demonstrated that the majority of cancer survivors will have significant impairments and that these often go undetected and/or untreated, and consequently may result in disability. Furthermore, physical disability is a leading cause of distress in this population. The scientific literature has shown that rehabilitation improves pain, function, and quality of life in cancer survivors. In fact, rehabilitation efforts can ameliorate physical (including cognitive) impairments at every stage along the course of treatment. This includes prehabilitation before cancer treatment commences and multimodal interdisciplinary rehabilitation during and after acute cancer treatment. Rehabilitation appears to be cost-effective and may reduce both direct and indirect health care costs, thereby reducing the enormous financial burden of cancer. Therefore, it is critical that survivors are screened for both psychological and physical impairments and then referred appropriately to trained rehabilitation health care professionals. This review suggests an impairment-driven cancer rehabilitation model that includes screening and treating impairments all along the care continuum in order to minimize disability and maximize quality of life. CA Cancer J Clin 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

Blessing Health Professions Library staff analyzed usage reports and discovered certain electronic resources were underutilized. In contrast, a new resource, Nursing Reference Center, was showing substantial growth. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved study was designed to investigate usage of this database. A 10-question survey was put on the library Web page and e-mailed to hospital personnel. The theoretical framework for the study was Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations. Results, analyzed in SPSS 19, showed plain language searching and a simple interface were key components for the staff nurses. Additional findings verified that their network of peer-to-peer dialogue was the most influential in choosing resources. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Mitra M.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Lu E.,MA | Diop H.,Office of Data Translation Director
Women's Health Issues | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy among a representative sample of Massachusetts women with and without disabilities. Methods: Data from the 2007 to 2009 Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey were used to estimate the prevalence of smoking by disability status. Main Findings: Disability prevalence was 4.8% (n = 204) among Massachusetts women giving birth during 2007 through 2009. The prevalence of smoking during the 3 months before pregnancy among women with disabilities was 37.3% (95% CI, 28.3-47.2%) compared with 18.3% (95% CI, 16.6-20.1%) among women without disabilities. Similarly, 25.2% (95% CI, 17.3-35.2%) of women with disabilities, compared with 9.4% of women without disabilities (95% CI, 8.1-10.8%), smoked during the last trimester of their pregnancy, and 32.1% of women with disabilities (95% CI, 23.5-42.1%) compared with 12.5% of women without disabilities (95% CI, 11.1-14.1%), smoked after pregnancy. In the multivariate logistic regression models, women with disabilities had significantly higher risks of smoking before, during and after pregnancy than women without disabilities (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.2]; aRR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.3-2.8]; aRR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.3-2.5], respectively) while adjusting for race/Hispanic ethnicity, marital status, education, age, household poverty status, and infant's birth year. Implications: Women with disabilities are more likely to smoke before, during, and after their pregnancy and less likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Efforts to integrate and target pregnant women with disabilities in smoking-cessation programs are vital. © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health.

Newcomb L.,MA | Sherpa C.,International Porter Protection Group | Nickol A.,Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit | Windsor J.,University College London
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Altitude illness can occur in anyone who ascends to high altitude. Better understanding of altitude illness is associated with a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The purpose of this study is to compare, for the first time, the incidence and understanding of altitude illness between foreign trekkers and indigenous porters in Nepal. Methods: Interviews and questionnaires were completed at the International Porter Protection Group Rescue Post at Machermo (4470 m). Participants completed the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness self-assessment questionnaire. They were also asked about their actions in response to high altitude illness scenarios as well as their perception of the vulnerability of porters vs trekkers to altitude illness. Ascent profile, age, gender, ethnic origin, and altitude of home residence were also obtained. Results: Trekkers (n=131) had a significantly higher incidence of AMS (21% vs 8%) than porters (n=92; P <.02). Lowland porters (whose home villages were below 3050 m, n=61) had a numerically higher, though not significantly different, incidence of AMS (10% vs 3%) compared to highland porters (n=31). The majority of trekkers and porters recognized the symptoms of altitude illness and the most appropriate action to be taken. Despite the lower incidence of AMS in porters, around half felt that they were at greater risk than trekkers. Conclusions: Porters had a lower incidence of AMS, which may be attributable to repeated ascents through the trekking season, or differences in reporting symptoms. Both trekkers and porters demonstrated appropriate knowledge of actions to be taken in response to altitude illness. © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society.

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