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Bhopal, India

In this paper, the development in the degradation of microcystic toxins and algae removal by TiO2 photocatalysts is reviewed, analyzing the prospect and pinpointing the key factor of thetechnology. TiO2, which is insoluble, nontoxic, inexpensive and catalyst-efficient, shows goodchemical inertness. For the degradation of microcystic toxins and algae removal, TiO2 photocatalysts is superior to the traditional processing technology and method, contributing a lot to environmental protection. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

Kumar K.A.,College
2010 1st International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing, PDGC - 2010

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is an emerging technology that has a wide range of applications in various important areas including, environmental, wildlife monitoring, artificial intelligence, medical, battle field, agriculture and research. All these area of applications requires high quality data transmission from source sensor node to destination sensor node. In military applications, electro optic sensors are deployed in battle field to capture data of enemy objects and low power sensors are deployed for transmission of data to destination node. This network is known as heterogeneous wireless sensor network for military applications. The major problems in heterogeneous wireless sensor network are interference and congestion, which minimize quality data transmission. With this research paper I proposed IMCC (Interference minimization and Congestion Control) protocol to increase the quality in data transmission in heterogeneous wireless sensor network by minimizing interference and congestion control. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Arivazhagan M.,College | Kavitha R.,Saranathan College of Engineering
Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 4-bromoveratrole (4BV) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm -1 and 3500-50 cm -1 , respectively. The experimental vibrational frequencies are compared with the wave numbers obtained theoretically by ab-initio HF and DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing the standard 6-31 1++G(d,p) basis set for the optimized geometry of 4BV. The values of the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the investigated molecule are computed using DFT quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behaviour with non-zero values.NBO analysis has been carried out at DFT level. NBO study explains charge delocalization of the molecule. Mulliken's net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges. Source

Noden B.H.,Polytechnic of Namibia | Vaughan J.A.,University of North Dakota | Pumpuni C.B.,College | Beier J.C.,University of Miami
Parasitology International

The mosquito midgut is a site of complex interactions between the mosquito, the malaria parasite and the resident bacterial flora. In laboratory experiments, we observed significant enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum oocyst production when Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes were membrane-fed on infected blood containing gametocytes from in vitro cultures mixed with sera from rabbits immunized with A. gambiae midguts. To identify specific mechanisms, we evaluated whether the immune sera was interfering with the usual limiting activity of gram-negative bacteria in An. gambiae midguts. Enhancement of P. falciparum infection rates occurred at some stage between the ookinete and oocyst stage and was associated with greater numbers of oocysts in mosquitoes fed on immune sera. The same immune sera did not affect the sporogonic development of P. yoelii, a rodent malaria parasite. Not only did antibodies in the immune sera recognize several types of midgut-derived gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. and Cedecea spp.), but gentamicin provided in the sugar meal 3. days before an infectious P. falciparum blood meal mixed with immune sera eliminated the enhancing effect. These results suggest that gram-negative bacteria, which normally impair P. falciparum development between the ookinete and oocyst stage, were altered by specific anti-bacterial antibodies produced by immunizing rabbits with non-antibiotic-treated midgut lysates. Because of the differences in developmental kinetics between human and rodent malaria species, the anti-bacterial antibodies had no effect on P. yoelii because their ookinetes leave the midgut much earlier than P. falciparum and so are not influenced as strongly by resident midgut bacteria. While this study highlights the complex interactions occurring between the parasite, mosquito, and midgut microbiota, the ultimate goal is to determine the influence of midgut microbiota on Plasmodium development in anopheline midguts in malaria endemic settings. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Jones J.C.P.,Villanova University | Spelina J.M.,Villanova University | Spelina J.M.,College | Frey J.,Villanova University
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology

Engine knock is an undesirable phenomenon, which requires feedback control in order to maximize engine efficiency and avoid damage to the engine. In this paper, an analysis of experimental data is used to provide further evidence that knock behaves as a cyclically uncorrelated random process. It is argued that all knock controllers are therefore ultimately stochastic in nature and that the knock control problem is best undertaken within a stochastic framework. The properties of knock events are discussed and, based on these properties, a new likelihood-based stochastic knock controller is presented. The new controller achieves a significantly improved regulatory response relative to conventional strategies, while also maintaining a rapid transient response. It is therefore possible to operate closer to the knock limit without increasing the risk of engine damage. © 2013 IEEE. Source

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