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Lucking R.,Field Museum | Lumbsch H.T.,Field Museum | Von Konrat M.,Field Museum | Naikatini A.,Institute of Applied Science
Bryologist | Year: 2010

The new species Graphis collinsiae Lücking & Lumbsch is described from the Fiji Islands. The species belongs to the G. insulana aggregate and is intermediate between G. insulana (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Sipman and G. subhiascens (Müll. Arg.) Lücking. All three species have a similar thallus and lirellae morphology and anatomy and ascospore-type, but differ in hymenial and chemical characters: G. insulana has an inspersed hymenium and contains norstictic acid, whereas G. subhiascens lacks inspersions and secondary substances. The new species, G. collinsiae, agrees with G. insulana in having an inspersed hymenium, but it lacks secondary metabolites. © 2010 The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc. Source


Werneke M.W.,CentraState Medical Center | Deutscher D.,Physical Therapy Service | Hart D.L.,Physical Therapy Service | Hart D.L.,Focus on Therapeutic Outcomes Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2014

STUDY DESIGN.: Inter-rater chance-corrected agreement study. OBJECTIVE.: The aim was to examine the association between therapistsÊ level of formal precredential McKenzie postgraduate training and agreement on the following McKenzie classification variables for patients with low back pain: main McKenzie syndromes, presence of lateral shift, derangement reducibility, directional preference, and centralization. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Minimal level of McKenzie postgraduate training needed to achieve acceptable agreement of McKenzie classification system is unknown. METHODS.: Raters (N = 47) completed multiple sets of 2 independent successive examinations at 3 different stages of McKenzie postgraduate training (levels parts A and B, part C, and part D). Agreement was assessed with κ coefficients and associated 95% confidence intervals. A minimum κ threshold of 0.60 was used as a predetermined criterion for level of agreement acceptable for clinical use. RESULTS.: Raters examined 1662 patients (mean age = 51 ± 15; range, 18-91; females, 57%). Data distributions were not even and were highly skewed for all classification variables. No training level studied had acceptable agreement for any McKenzie classification variable. Agreements for all levels of McKenzie postgraduate training were higher than expected by chance for most of the classification variables except parts A and B training level for judging lateral shift and centralization and part D training level for judging reducibility. Agreement between training levels parts A and B, part C, and part D were similar with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. CONCLUSION.: Results indicate that level of inter-rater chance-corrected agreement of McKenzie classification system was not acceptable for therapists at any level of formal McKenzie postgraduate training. This finding raises concerns about the clinical utility of the McKenzie classification system at these training levels. Additional studies are needed to assess agreement levels for therapists who receive additional training or experience at the McKenzie credentialed or diploma levels. © 2014 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source


Karami Shahmaleki N.,of Civil | Behbahani S.M.R.,University of Tehran | Massah Bavani A.R.,University of Tehran | Khodaei K.,Institute of Applied Science
Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013

Introduction Groundwater is an important source of water because of having less potential of contamination and high storage capacity compared with surface water. Availability of point and non-point source pollutants resulting from the human activities on Earth's surface and their influences on groundwater reduce quality of aquifers. Therefore, prevention of ground water pollution is an imperative task. One the best methods for preventing pollution of groundwater is assessing vulnerability of aquifer and addressing management efforts for maintaining quality of groundwater. Evaluating vulnerability of groundwater to pollution has been the subject of many investigations in recent years, and different methods have been developed; such as statistical method, process-oriented and index methods. Process-oriented approach deals with flow movement models in saturated and non-saturated zones, and evaluates the effects of physical and hydraulic properties of soil, recharge and depth of infiltration in the transition of contamination. The method simulates physical process of water movement and route of pollution transportation, and determines the distribution of sensitive and vulnerable areas. Because of complexity and requirement of large input data, this method is not widely used for large scale studies. Statistical methods include descriptive statistics, multivariate regression analysis, and complex statistical analysis like logistic regression. The hypothesis test of this method is effective for the elimination of ineffective variables, and eliminates the need for personal judgments. The third category is index method which is among the most primary and simplest methods. In this method, each parameter that affects the potential of pollution is categorized on the same scale and parameters are provided with relative coefficients. In DRASTIC method, determining and classification of the coefficients of the parameters is to some extent based on personal judgment and cannot be accepted as an accurate method for predictions. Many suggestions for improving DRASTIC model have been developed by researchers. Most of the researchers suggested excluding less important parameters, adding effective parameters, modifying the model coefficients, and ranking parameters. Also, suggestions on integrating this method with other methods have been offered. In research of Antonakos, according to nonparametric statistics, non-significant parameters are removed and the rest of the parameters relatively achieve new weights. Problem of this method is application of relativity that has been modified in this study. For the purpose of this study, three methods: logistic regression, modified DRASTIC and AHP-DRASTIC which all are based on DRASTIC method are presented and their results are compared based on the association of vulnerability classes to the pollution (Nitrates). It should be mentioned that selecting Nitrate as the pollution index is not because of the production of this pollutant by human activities, but it is due to the fact that Nitrate is recognized as the index of quality deterioration of groundwater. Source


Rizvi A.F.,Institute of Applied Science | Singh K.P.,Allahabad University | Kumar N.,National Academy of science
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2011

The current catch pattern of fishery at Allahabad is showing decreasing catch of commercial fish viz. Indian major carps (IMCs) in comparison to non-commercial fishes. This is leading to lowering of Socio-economic status of local fisherman. This paper reports population dynamics studies (growth parameters, mortality rates and exploitation rate) of three non-commercial fishes namely Sciaena coitor, Gudusia chapra and Chela laubuca from the river Ganga and Yamuna of Allahabad region from January to December, 2010 Estimated L ∞, K, Z, M, F, E and U for S. coitor were 215, 1.514, 4.97, 2.56, 2.41, 0.484 and 0.4.81 per year; for G. chapra 180, 2.838, 9.609, 4.07, 5.54, 0.57 and 0.57 per year and 135, 2.703, 6.041, 4.27, 1.77, 0.293 and 0.292 per year for C. laubuca. The study revealed that these fishes were underexploited except G. chapra that has crossed the over-fishing level. Nutritional value of S. coitor was found higher among the selected fishes; and it was also found organoleptically acceptable. Therefore, it is suggested, that such unexploited non-commercial fishes be used to augment the income of fisherman. Fish products like Fish Papad, Fish Chakli and Fish save were prepared by amalgamation of some phytoproteins (Urad pulse and black gram flour) with fresh flesh of S. coitor, for human consumption and shelf value was found quite good (upto 200 days) for the above products. Source


Stevens K.J.,University of North Texas | Wellner M.R.,University of North Texas | Acevedo M.F.,Institute of Applied Science
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2010

Levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonization were assessed in the vegetation recolonizing a remnant bottomland hardwood forest in north central Texas following a 100 year flood. Thirty seven plant species representing 21 dicotyledonous and 2 montocotyledonous families established following floodwater recession. AM and/or DSE were found in all species. AM colonization was found in 31 out of the 37 species assessed including both monocotyledonous families (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) and 17 out of 21 dicotyledonous families (Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Pedaliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Verbanaceae and Violaceae). DSE were found in 31 out of 37 species assessed including both monocotyledonous families and 15 out of 21 dicotyledonous families (Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Pedaliaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Violaceae). There were no detectable differences in AM or DSE colonization levels among wetland indicator groups (p > 0.05). Levels of DSE colonization were negatively correlated with vesicular colonization and hyphal colonization for the obligate wetland species. There were no other significant relationships between AM and DSE colonization detected. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients did not differ significantly among wetland indicatory category for any level of AM or DSE colonization. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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