Institute of Applied Science

Suva, Fiji

Institute of Applied Science

Suva, Fiji
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Cini M.,Institute of Applied science | Bradshaw T.D.,University of Nottingham | Woodward S.,University of Nottingham
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2017

When the first titanium complex with anticancer activity was identified in the 1970s, it was attractive, based on the presence of the dichloride unit in TiCl2Cp2 (Cp = η-C5H5)2, to assume its mode of biological action was closely aligned with cisplatin [cis-PtCl2(NH3)2]. Over the intervening 40 years however a far more complicated picture has arisen indicating multiple cellular mechanisms of cellular action can be triggered by titanium anti-cancer agents. This tutorial review aims to unpick the historical data and provide new researchers, without an explicit cancer biology background, a contemporary interpretation of both older and newer literature and to review the best techniques for attaining the identities of the biologically active titanium species and how these interact with the cancer cellular machinery. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Werneke M.W.,CentraState Medical Center | Deutscher D.,Maccabi Healthcare Services | Hart D.L.,Maccabi Healthcare Services | Hart D.L.,Focus on Therapeutic Outcomes Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2014

STUDY DESIGN.: Inter-rater chance-corrected agreement study. OBJECTIVE.: The aim was to examine the association between therapistsÊ level of formal precredential McKenzie postgraduate training and agreement on the following McKenzie classification variables for patients with low back pain: main McKenzie syndromes, presence of lateral shift, derangement reducibility, directional preference, and centralization. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Minimal level of McKenzie postgraduate training needed to achieve acceptable agreement of McKenzie classification system is unknown. METHODS.: Raters (N = 47) completed multiple sets of 2 independent successive examinations at 3 different stages of McKenzie postgraduate training (levels parts A and B, part C, and part D). Agreement was assessed with κ coefficients and associated 95% confidence intervals. A minimum κ threshold of 0.60 was used as a predetermined criterion for level of agreement acceptable for clinical use. RESULTS.: Raters examined 1662 patients (mean age = 51 ± 15; range, 18-91; females, 57%). Data distributions were not even and were highly skewed for all classification variables. No training level studied had acceptable agreement for any McKenzie classification variable. Agreements for all levels of McKenzie postgraduate training were higher than expected by chance for most of the classification variables except parts A and B training level for judging lateral shift and centralization and part D training level for judging reducibility. Agreement between training levels parts A and B, part C, and part D were similar with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. CONCLUSION.: Results indicate that level of inter-rater chance-corrected agreement of McKenzie classification system was not acceptable for therapists at any level of formal McKenzie postgraduate training. This finding raises concerns about the clinical utility of the McKenzie classification system at these training levels. Additional studies are needed to assess agreement levels for therapists who receive additional training or experience at the McKenzie credentialed or diploma levels. © 2014 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Maalej S.,Institute of Applied science and Technology | Zaghdoudi M.C.,Institute of Applied science
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2011

Combined experimental and analytical studies are realized in order to determine the thermal performance of a Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) including a mixed capillary system, which is composed of screen meshes and mini-channels. In the analytical study, a model of FMHP with mixed capillary structure is developed, and it is capable to simulate the FMHP thermal performance for different operating conditions. The optimal geometrical characteristics of the meshes are also identified. In the experimental study, different FMHP prototypes are manufactured and tested. The number of screen meshes is kept the same for the different tested configurations; however different meshing sizes are used. The heat transfer improvement, obtained by comparing the heat pipe thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested heat pipes, is demonstrated for the different prototypes. The heat transfer enhancement depends on the input heat flux rate, the screen mesh porosity, and the FMHP orientation in respect to gravity. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results shows a good agreement in predicting both the maximum capillary limit and the FMHP thermal resistance. © 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

PubMed | CHUV, Institute of Applied science and Urogynecology Unit
Type: | Journal: International urogynecology journal | Year: 2016

We correlated intrarectal pressure parameter recordings during the second phase of labour in primiparous women with postpartum pelvic floor (PF) complaints to try to define a critical pressure threshold for the occurrence of permanent PF injury.Using a microsystem device, the duration of bearing-down efforts, the area under the pressure curve and the peak pressure during bearing-down efforts were continuously recorded in 43 women with spontaneous delivery (group one) and in 17 women with forceps-assisted delivery (group two). PF complaints were assessed using ICS-validated questionnaires established before delivery and 146months after delivery.Postpartum PF complaints were not significantly different between the groups. The first and second phases of labour were longer in women of group two. The three parameters measured were not correlated with the babys weight or mode of delivery. The duration of bearing-down efforts was correlated with difficulty voiding and lower abdominal discomfort in women of group one only. The area under the pressure curve was correlated with feeling of urgency to void, urge incontinence, drops escape, decreased frequency of orgasm and difficulties in reaching orgasm in women of group two only. Peak pressure values were not correlated with any PF dysfunction.Intrarectal pressure parameters during second phase of labour show no significant correlations with obstetric parameters, but were significantly correlated with some urinary and sexual PF complaints 14months after spontaneous and forceps-assisted delivery with a higher incidence of significant correlations in women of group two with forceps-assisted delivery, probably because of the longer first and second phases of labour.

Stevens K.J.,University of North Texas | Wellner M.R.,University of North Texas | Acevedo M.F.,Institute of Applied science
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2010

Levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonization were assessed in the vegetation recolonizing a remnant bottomland hardwood forest in north central Texas following a 100 year flood. Thirty seven plant species representing 21 dicotyledonous and 2 montocotyledonous families established following floodwater recession. AM and/or DSE were found in all species. AM colonization was found in 31 out of the 37 species assessed including both monocotyledonous families (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) and 17 out of 21 dicotyledonous families (Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Onagraceae, Pedaliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Verbanaceae and Violaceae). DSE were found in 31 out of 37 species assessed including both monocotyledonous families and 15 out of 21 dicotyledonous families (Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Pedaliaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Sapindaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Violaceae). There were no detectable differences in AM or DSE colonization levels among wetland indicator groups (p > 0.05). Levels of DSE colonization were negatively correlated with vesicular colonization and hyphal colonization for the obligate wetland species. There were no other significant relationships between AM and DSE colonization detected. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients did not differ significantly among wetland indicatory category for any level of AM or DSE colonization. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pflanz D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Pflanz D.,Institute of Applied science | Gaedicke C.,Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources | Freitag R.,Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

The tectonic position of the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula at the junction of the active Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian arcs exposes the coastline of the peninsula to strong neotectonic activities. Fracture zones have variable influence on uplift of the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula. Relevant morphologic indicators of neotectonic activity are multilevel, highly uplifted marine terraces and terraces displaced along active faults. Recent uplift rates of coastal sediments are determined by remote sensing via ASTER and SRTM DEM combined with optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL). On the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula, terraces from the same generation are mapped at different elevations by remote sensing methods. After defining different areas of uplifted terraces, four neotectonic blocks are identified. According to apatite fission track data, the mean differential exhumation rates range from 0. 2 to 1. 2 mm year-1 across the blocks since Late Miocene. The OSL data presented point to significant higher uplift rates of up to 3 ± 0. 5 and 4. 3 ± 1 mm year-1, which indicates an acceleration of the vertical movement along the coast of Kamchatka Cape Peninsula in Upper Pleistocene and Holocene times. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lucking R.,Field Museum | Lumbsch H.T.,Field Museum | Von Konrat M.,Field Museum | Naikatini A.,Institute of Applied Science
Bryologist | Year: 2010

The new species Graphis collinsiae Lücking & Lumbsch is described from the Fiji Islands. The species belongs to the G. insulana aggregate and is intermediate between G. insulana (Müll. Arg.) Lücking & Sipman and G. subhiascens (Müll. Arg.) Lücking. All three species have a similar thallus and lirellae morphology and anatomy and ascospore-type, but differ in hymenial and chemical characters: G. insulana has an inspersed hymenium and contains norstictic acid, whereas G. subhiascens lacks inspersions and secondary substances. The new species, G. collinsiae, agrees with G. insulana in having an inspersed hymenium, but it lacks secondary metabolites. © 2010 The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

Rizvi A.F.,Institute of Applied science
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Ribbonfishes are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters of the world. The Lepturachanthus savala Cuvier, 1829 were collected from different landing centres of Mumbai and Thane district around the Mumbai coast during 1997-99. Linear relationship was found between the different morphometric characters of their body which was highly correlated to each other. 'F' value was calculated as non significant between fishes of different landing centres except head length and inter orbital length. The asymptotic length (L∞) and growth coefficient (K) were estimated to be 690.0 mm, and 0.86 -year respectively from fishes of Mumbai district and 687.2mm and 0.88 -year from those of Thane district. It is assumed that the population of L savala from different water sources around Mumbai is homogeneous belonging to the same stock. The growth rate of this stock is observed to be faster as compared to other localities of the stock in India.

Rizvi A.F.,Institute of Applied science | Singh K.P.,Allahabad University | Kumar N.,National Academy of science
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2011

The current catch pattern of fishery at Allahabad is showing decreasing catch of commercial fish viz. Indian major carps (IMCs) in comparison to non-commercial fishes. This is leading to lowering of Socio-economic status of local fisherman. This paper reports population dynamics studies (growth parameters, mortality rates and exploitation rate) of three non-commercial fishes namely Sciaena coitor, Gudusia chapra and Chela laubuca from the river Ganga and Yamuna of Allahabad region from January to December, 2010 Estimated L ∞, K, Z, M, F, E and U for S. coitor were 215, 1.514, 4.97, 2.56, 2.41, 0.484 and 0.4.81 per year; for G. chapra 180, 2.838, 9.609, 4.07, 5.54, 0.57 and 0.57 per year and 135, 2.703, 6.041, 4.27, 1.77, 0.293 and 0.292 per year for C. laubuca. The study revealed that these fishes were underexploited except G. chapra that has crossed the over-fishing level. Nutritional value of S. coitor was found higher among the selected fishes; and it was also found organoleptically acceptable. Therefore, it is suggested, that such unexploited non-commercial fishes be used to augment the income of fisherman. Fish products like Fish Papad, Fish Chakli and Fish save were prepared by amalgamation of some phytoproteins (Urad pulse and black gram flour) with fresh flesh of S. coitor, for human consumption and shelf value was found quite good (upto 200 days) for the above products.

Sango D.M.,University of Malta | Abela D.,University of Malta | Abela D.,Institute of Applied Science | Mcelhatton A.,University of Malta | Valdramidis V.P.,University of Malta
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2014

Ultrasound requires high power and longer treatment times to inactivate micro-organisms when compared to ultrasound combined with other technologies. Previous reports have shown that the effectiveness of ultrasound as a decontamination technology can be increased by combining it with another treatment such as pressure, heat and antimicrobial solutions. Assisted ultrasound, the combination of ultrasound with another technology, is more energy efficient, and it has less impact on the food properties. In this review paper, the power ultrasound antimicrobial mechanisms of action, the antimicrobial effects of ultrasound in combination with other physical processes and antimicrobial solutions are comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, the present interest on using these technologies as alternative processing and decontamination methods is presented. Research outputs on the application of ultrasound combined with physical processes are showcased including applications of thermosonication, manosonication, manothermosonication and osmosonication. Antimicrobial efficacy, energy requirements and optimal operation conditions of the different assisted ultrasound technologies are critically discussed, and their impact on the food industry for future applications is presented. Overall, this review paper highlights the importance and recent developments of assisted ultrasound for enhancing food safety. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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