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Mokrousov I.,St Petersburg Pasteur Institute | Vyazovaya A.,St Petersburg Pasteur Institute | Iwamoto T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Skiba Y.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Currently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates of Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM) family may be detected far beyond the geographic areas that coined its name 15 years ago. Here, we established the framework phylogeny of this geographically intriguing and pathobiologically important mycobacterial lineage and hypothesized how human demographics and migration influenced its phylogeography. Phylogenetic analysis of LAM isolates from all continents based on 24 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci and other markers identified three global sublineages with certain geographic affinities and defined by large deletions RD115, RD174, and by spoligotype SIT33. One minor sublineage (spoligotype SIT388) appears endemic in Japan. One-locus VNTR signatures were established for sublineages and served for their search in published literature and geographic mapping. We suggest that the LAM family originated in the Western Mediterranean region. The most widespread RD115 sublineage seems the most ancient and encompasses genetically and geographically distant branches, including extremely drug resistant KZN in South Africa and LAM-RUS recently widespread across Northern Eurasia. The RD174 sublineage likely started its active spread in Brazil; its earlier branch is relatively dominated by isolates from South America and the derived one is dominated by Portuguese and South/Southeastern African isolates. The relatively most recent SIT33-sublineage is marked with enigmatic gaps and peaks across the Americas and includes South African clade F11/RD761, which likely emerged within the SIT33 subpopulation after its arrival to Africa. In addition to SIT388-sublineage, other deeply rooted, endemic LAM sublineages may exist that remain to be discovered. As a general conclusion, human mass migration appears to be the major factor that shaped the M. tuberculosis phylogeography over large time-spans. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kerimkulova A.R.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Mansurova B.B.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Gil'Manov M.K.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Mansurov Z.A.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A

The physicochemical characteristics of carbon sorbents are investigated. Electron microscopy data for the sorbent and separated lipoprotein complex are presented. It is found that the obtained carbon sorbent possess high porosity. Nanoporous carbon sorbents for the chromatography of molecular-sieve markers are obtained and tested. The applicability of nanoporous carbon sorbents for separation of lipoprotein complexes (LPC) is investigated. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012. Source

Skiba Y.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Mokrousov I.,Saint Petersburg Pasteur Institute | Ismagulova G.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Maltseva E.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | And 5 more authors.

Summary Republic of Kazakhstan is among the 27 high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries in the world. Here, we analyzed the population structure and phylogeography of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kazakhstan and impact of the identified genotypes on spread of drug resistant strains. A total of 159 M. tuberculosis isolates from different regions of Kazakhstan were typed using 24-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping, and the profiles were compared to the MIRU-VNTRplus and SITVIT-WEB databases. Eight isolates with double VNTR alleles were excluded from further analysis that was performed on 151 isolates. They were assigned to 10 families, Beijing (n = 109) being the largest and dominated by a single clonal cluster 94-32 and derived profiles (n = 101). The other families were represented mainly by LAM (n = 17), Ural (n = 8), NEW-1 (n = 3) and a new cluster named KAZ-1 (n = 8). Beijing, LAM and Ural isolates were detected in all parts of the country while Iran-specific family NEW-1 was found only in southern Kazakhstan (P = 0.001). A reduced scheme of 10 most polymorphic VNTR loci provided a discrimination similar to that achieved by 15-MIRU scheme and may be recommended for rapid preliminary screening of the clinical isolates in Kazakhstan. Multi-drug resistance was significantly more prevalent among Beijing (64/109) and LAM (7/17) strains compared to strains of other families (1/25; P = 0.0006 and 0.01, respectively). High prevalence of the genetically closely related MDR strains of the Beijing genotype found in different regions of Kazakhstan highlights their crucial impact on the current TB epidemic in this country. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sapko O.A.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Utarbaeva A.S.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Makulbek S.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology

Cell suspension cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum, cv. Tamasha) were treated with fusaric acid (FA), a nonspecific fungal toxin produced by Fusarium species to study the effects of FA on H 2O 2 generation, lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The toxicity of various FA doses was evaluated from viability of cultured cells of S. tuberosum. The toxic concentration of FA (10 -3 M) reduced cell viability by 32% after 48-h incubation and induced alkalinization of the medium; the nontoxic concentration of FA (10 -6 M) had no effect on cell viability and pH of the culturing medium. The treatment of cells with FA caused rapid reversible accumulation of H 2O 2 in cells, promoted lipid peroxidation, and elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The toxic FA concentration elevated the intracellular H 2O 2 content by 51-59% and stimulated lipid peroxidation rate by 35-40%. The nontoxic FA concentration raised the H 2O 2 content by 84-91% and enhanced lipid peroxidation rate by 18-24%. The addition of FA induced transient biphasic induction of the antioxidant enzymes; the action of toxic and nontoxic concentrations differed in terms of the response amplitudes and dynamics. The results confirm the well-known toxic impact of high doses of FA on the cultured cells, which is determined by membrane transport disorders. In addition, the results reveal that toxic and nontoxic concentrations of FA are able to induce pro- and antioxidant systems in the cultured cells of S. tuberosum. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Beisenov D.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Stanbekova G.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Nadirova L.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Zhigailov A.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry | Iskakov B.,Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia

The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of producing the sheep pox virus surface antigen that is an ortholog of vaccinia viral A27L in wheat germ cell free system and then in transgenic tobacco plants. Insertion into the A27L-mRNA 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) of various translational enhancers (TEs) from plant viruses, as well as an artificial TE, allowed to increase the level of A27L protein synthesis in a wheat germ cell-free system. When the 5' UTR of potato virus Y genomic RNA was used as a TE, synthesis of an additional polypeptide that was approximately 2 kDa larger than the primary product of translation was observed in both plant and mammalian cell-free systems. The DNA constructs used for stable transformation of tobacco plants, besides 5' TEs, contained the transit-peptide-coding sequences for targeted accumulation of synthesized A27L protein. The amount of recombinant protein in the leaves of transgenic plants varied from 0.01 to 0.03 % of the total soluble protein. Source

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