Kuhad R.C.,University of Delhi |
Kuhad R.C.,Central University of Haryana |
Deswal D.,University of Delhi |
Sharma S.,University of Delhi |
And 6 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016
Lignocellulosic biomass has been considered as an important and sustainable source of renewable energy. Cellulose constitutes the major component of the lignocellulosic biomass and also offers maximum recalcitrance towards its fullest utilization. The enzymatic breakdown of cellulose is achieved through cellulases. Diverse forms of microbes including fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes and yeast are known to produce cellulases that have found extensive application in various industries. Due to the current global political unrest over oil prices and the threat of global warming following combustion of fossil fuels, the paradigm of research is now focused on biofuel production from plant biomass. Conventional approaches have not been economically feasible for meeting the demands of the industry. This review provides an update regarding the status of present microbial cellulase production technologies and research with special reference to solid state fermentation and different molecular techniques such as mutagenesis, metabolic engineering and heterologous gene expression of cellulases from different microbial domains with improved catalytic and stability properties. Metagenomic and genomic studies for mining of novel cellulase genes in addition to screening of culturable strains using conventional methods have been advanced. In addition the bottlenecks associated with cellulase production and how the future research needs to be directed to provide a comprehensive technology for the production of cellulases with novel traits for application at an industrial level without economic constraints are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Kuhad R.C.,University of Delhi |
Gupta R.,University of Delhi |
Singh A.,Lystek International Inc.
Enzyme Research | Year: 2011
Microbial cellulases have shown their potential application in various industries including pulp and paper, textile, laundry, biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, and agriculture. Due to the complexity of enzyme system and immense industrial potential, cellulases have been a potential candidate for research by both the academic and industrial research groups. Nowadays, significant attentions have been devoted to the current knowledge of cellulase production and the challenges in cellulase research especially in the direction of improving the process economics of various industries. Scientific and technological developments and the future prospects for application of cellulases in different industries are discussed in this paper. © 2011 Ramesh Chander Kuhad et al.
Lystek International Inc. | Date: 2010-03-03
Sewage sludge is dewatered to a cake-like state. The viscosity of the sludge is lowered by admixing a quantity of urea, urea-ammonium-nitrate, or other nitrogen-containing material, in with the dewatered sludge. The treatment also removes pathogens, and renders the product suitable for use as a fertilizer.
Lystek International Inc. | Date: 2011-06-22
Paunch-sludge from an abattoir is mixed with the fatty DAF-float from an abattoir, and placed in a shearing vessel. The mixture of the two material thickens the medium in which the matted strands are contained, enabling shearing to be more effective; so much so that paunch-sludge can now be sheared to a homogeneous liquid. The technique can be used with other sludges and other fatty waste materials.
Lystek International Inc. | Date: 2013-01-17
Fertilizers for agricultural use; Non-chemical bio-fertilizers.