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ALAMEDA, CA, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2005

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus that predominantly infects immunocompromised patients. It is the most common cause of infectious pneumonic mortality in HIV patients, organ transplant recipients, and cancer patients. Treatment is complicated by the fact that patients are often too fragile for invasive or toxic therapies. The current first-line treatment for aspergillosis is amphotericin B (ampB) but it is both highly nephrotoxic and insoluble. Thus, ampB presents an array of challenges to its therapeutic application and as a result successful outcomes are disturbingly low: 30 to 50%. In response to this problem, we have developed NanoDisks(tm), a novel preparation of lipid and protein for the solubilization and delivery of hydrophobic drugs. NanoDisks are 8 -15 nm diameter disc-shaped structures composed of a lipid bilayer circumscribed by a stabilizing apolipoprotein or peptide mimetic. When ampB is incorporated into NanoDisks (ND-AMB), we observe a dramatic increase in solubility and reduction in toxicity. In comparison to a leading commercial liposomal formulation of ampB (AmBisome), the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NDAMB against Aspergillus is 25-fold lower and in an animal model of disseminated Candidiasis, ND-AMB is effective at 3 to 5-fold lower doses. Because the normal route of Aspergillus infection is through inhalation of conidia, aspergillosis may be most responsive to therapies that are directed to the lung. Since ND-AMB can be lyophilized and rehydrated without loss of biological activity or complex integrity, we hypothesize that NanoDisks are compatible with dry powder inhalation delivery. We propose to test the hypothesis that NDAMB can be formulated into an improved inhaleable treatment for A. fumigatus infection. We will examine the overall suitability of ND-AMB for inhalation administration, specifically, ND-AMB compatibility with inhaleable dry powder synthesis and the ability of ND-AMB to transit the alveolar epithelium.


Crosby N.M.,Lypro Biosciences, Inc. | Ghosh M.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute | Su B.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute | Beckstead J.A.,Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. © 2015 Published by NRC Research Press. Source


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 421.06K | Year: 2007

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus that predominantly infects immunocompromised patients. It is the most common cause of infectious pneumonic mortality in HIV patients, organ transplant recipients, and cancer patients. A. fumigatus infection in HIV infected patients is most pertinent due to the exceptionally high mortality rate (>75% die within the first year of infection). Treatment is complicated by the fact that patients are often too fragile for invasive or toxic therapies. The current first-line treatment for aspergillosis is amphotericin B (AMB) but it is both highly nephrotoxic and insoluble. Its nephrotoxicity can be a significant contributing factor to mortality. Thus, AMB presents an array of challenges to its therapeutic application. In response to this problem, we have developed NanoDisks(tm), a novel preparation of lipid and protein for the solubilization and delivery of hydrophobic drugs. NanoDisks are 8 - 15 nm diameter disc-shaped structures composed of a lipid bilayer circumscribed by a stabilizing apolipoprotein or peptide mimetic. When AMB is incorporated into NanoDisks (ND-AMB), we observe a dramatic increase in solubility and reduction in toxicity. In comparison to a leading commercial liposomal formulation of AMB (AmBisome), the minimal inhibitory concentration of ND-AMB against Aspergillus is 25-fold lower and in an animal model of disseminated Candidiasis, ND-AMB is effective at 5-fold lower doses. Because the normal route of Aspergillus infection is through inhalation of conidia, aspergillosis may be most responsive to therapies that are directed to the lung. Phase I results of this SBIR proposal demonstrated that ND-AMB could be lyophilized, milled into powder and reyhydrated without loss of biological activity, complex integrity or AMB toxicity attenuation. Therefore we hypothesize that NanoDisks are capable of effective pulmonary and systemic delivery via inhalation for the treatment of A. fumigatus pulmonary and systemically disseminated infection. We will examine the overall capability of ND-AMB as an inhaled therapy. Specifically, we will characterize ND-AMB's ability to enter the bloodstream after inhalation, its pharmacokinetic distribution, toxicity and efficacy in treating pulmonary and systemic fungal infection in murine model systems. We hope to replicate our success with AMB as a leishmaniasis therapy, wherein we converted AMB from a marginally effective treatment to a potent cure by reformulating AMB into ND-AMB. Results from this study are essential for the development of an improved inhalable AMB-based therapy for the treatment of aspergillosis; a serious health issue for HIV infected patients, wherein median survival is 3 months. With inhalable ND-AMB we believe we will bring to bear an effective cure to a disease, wherein mortality rates are extremely high (> 75%).


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 109.35K | Year: 2009

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell malignancy that is characterized by dysregulation of various oncogenes. Building on evidence that retinoic acid and its derivative, all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), are useful agents that potentiate apoptosis or anti-proliferative effects, it is proposed to pursue a strategy of targeted delivery of ATRA to MCL cells in culture. Using a novel delivery vehicle wherein ATRA is solubilized in nanoscale, protein stabilized lipid particles, termed nanodisks (ND), protein engineering methods will be employed to target ATRA-ND to the CD20 antigen present on the surface of B lymphocytes. This will be achieved by construction of a single chain variable antibody (scFv) apolipoprotein (apo) fusion protein. It is hypothesized that 1-CD20 scFv7apoA-I fusion protein will be capable of forming ND while retaining the antigen recognition properties of the parent scFv. Recombinant fusion protein will be expressed in E. coli, isolated and characterized. The ability of the chimera to associate with lipid and induce formation of ND will be determined while the antigen recognition properties of the 1-CD20 scFv portion of the fusion protein will be evaluated by Western blot and flow cytometry. ND prepared with wild type apoA-I will serve as control for these studies. In a second aim the effect of 1-CD20 scFv7apoA-I ATRA-ND on MCL cells in culture will be assessed. It is hypothesized that retinoid containing, targeted ND, will display enhanced induction of apoptosis in cell culture models of MCL. Different MCL cell lines will be employed in studies designed to evaluate targeting efficiency, concentration effectiveness and cell viability following exposure to CD20 targeted scFv7apoA-I ATRA-ND. Cultured cells will be exposed to control ATRA-ND and 1-CD20 scFv7apoA-I ATRA-ND followed by measurements of cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy. Dose- response and time course studies will be conducted to define optimal conditions. Studies will also be performed with ND harboring related synthetic and natural retinoids. The results of these studies will expand the potential of ND mediated drug delivery by demonstrating cell / tissue specific targeting, providing a framework for in vivo studies of targeted ND in animal models of MCL. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Despite progress made in the broad category of lymphomas, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains a poorly treated disease with median survival time of approximately 3 to 4 years. New therapy regimens have increased the complete remission rate but they have done little to change overall survival. Research proposed herein will evaluate the effectiveness of targeted drug payload delivery to cultured MCL cells. These studies will establish a novel approach with broad applicability, establishing targeted nanodisks as a platform that can be used with other forms of cancer, potentially decreasing the public burden associated with this disease.

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