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Saint-Clément-de-la-Place, France

Berthelot J.-S.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Saint-Laurent D.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Gervais-Beaulac V.,University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres | Present A.,Lyonnaise Des Eaux
Forests | Year: 2015

With the current climate changes, it is essential to understand the mechanisms that govern floods and flow regimes and their effects on the dynamics of riparian forests. The aim is to assess the effects of new hydrological conditions (increase in flood frequency) on forest stands subject to frequent floods. The sampling sites (total of 94 quadrats) are located in riverine woodlands, and the choice of location corresponds to the boundaries of the flood-risk zones established by official government maps. Our study shows that there are significant differences in the composition and diversity of forest communities following differences in the flood recurrence zones. In the active floodplains (i.e., recurrence interval of 0-20 years), the tree population stands are clearly distinguished from other intermediate flood zones (interval of 20-100 years). Differences are also noted in the structure of the communities, in particular in the frequent flood zones, which are characterized by a low renewal rate, low density and less-diversified forest stands. The frequent floods risk forest stand rejuvenation and creating decline as a result of increased tree mortality and the low renewal rate. With the expected increases in the number of flood events in the coming decades, there may be greater tree mortality and a gradual disappearance of the forest communities. © 2015 by the authors. Source


Teillet E.,Lyonnaise Des Eaux | Teillet E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Urbano C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Cordelle S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Schlich P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2010

In order to understand consumer behavior toward drinking water, it is first necessary to determine sensory perception and liking for tap and bottled water. Nevertheless, sensory analysis of water is a challenge as drinking water is supposed to have almost no taste. Therefore, a methodology based on a perceptive sorting task was designed for that purpose. Six bottled mineral water and six types of tap water were presented to 389 consumers who had to group these samples according to their sensory similarities, describe their groups and give their preferences. The resulting sensory map was found to be mainly driven by the overall level of mineralization. Tap water, after being passively dechlorinated, did not perform differently from bottled water in all aspects for most consumers. Basically, three main tastes of water were highlighted and linked to the amount of minerals. The study demonstrated that the most likely preferred types of water are those with medium mineralization (total dissolved solids 300-350 mg/L), which are perceived as tasteless and cooler. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Piriou P.,Suez Environnement Cirsee | Devesa R.,Aguas de Barcelona | Puget S.,University of Burgundy | Thomas - Danguin T.,University of Burgundy | And 2 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Chlorinous flavors are one of the leading cause of customers' complaints and dissatisfaction with drinking water. To investigate potential regional differences in chlorine perception, sensory testing experiments were conducted in France and in Spain to assess consumers' sensory sensitivity (chlorine flavor detection threshold) as well as their liking and acceptance for chlorinated solutions. The chlorine flavor detection threshold was found to vary depending on countries (0.17 mg/LCl2 in France and 0.56 mg/LCl2 in Spain). According to the relation found between chlorine practices and average flavor detection thresholds, it is likely that habituation may support sensory differences rather than actual sensory sensitivity differences between countries. In addition, consumers' liking and acceptance for chlorinated water was found to be in agreement to their sensory sensitivity: the higher the detection threshold, the higher the acceptability for chlorinated waters. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings. All Rights Reserved. Source


Nafi A.,IRSTEA | Bentarzi Y.,IRSTEA | Granger D.,Lyonnaise Des Eaux | Cherqui F.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cherqui F.,University of Lyon
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2014

In the context of new challenges and emerging needs for transparency regarding users, urban water management is obliged to forge links between different technical fields. This implies managing interfaces between multiple stakeholders on the one hand, and ensuring the adaptability and sustainability of technical infrastructures on the other hand. In a period dominated by public spending cuts, the optimisation and efficiency of the system's infrastructures and the organisation of the stakeholders involved has become important for guaranteeing the continuity of the services provided. From the economic viewpoint, this challenge is related to tracking and reducing costs. Moreover, it also concerns the need to communicate arguments related to service costs to both users and stakeholders. Consequently, the "Eco-EAR" method was developed by adapting Functional Analysis (FA), Activity Based Costing (ABC) and Whole Life Costing (WLC) approaches in view to describing how the direct costs of the sewerage service provided by wastewater utilities are structured. The cost structure is analysed according to the activities and physical flows comprising the primary and secondary functions of an urban water management system. Three goals are targeted: i) to explain the costs of the system to the local authority (owners) and users; ii) to identify the activities that have the greatest impact on costs in order to plan cost reduction actions; and iii) to assess the apportionment of costs per activity and per physical flow, in order to better understand the system by combining both its economic and technical dimensions. The performance indicators proposed by the "Eco-EAR" method could also be used for benchmarking. The method is implemented in a real case study: the sub-system territory around the city of Mulhouse (northeast France) under the responsibility of a water management authority. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Chasles A.,Orleanaise des Eaux | Dedewanou M.,The GEO Group | Minc D.,Footways | Noel H.,The GEO Group | And 2 more authors.
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes | Year: 2015

At the initiative of the city of Orleáns was developed a model (called Phyto'Scope) to correlate and predict the amount of pesticides transferred to water catchments through soil and subsoil. It has been applied over the extended protected zone of water catchments supplying the city of Orleáns. The application was built by coupling a model of transfer in the soil made by Footways with a model of transfer in the substratum made by Geo-Hyd. The first phase was the collection of data: spatial distribution of crops, farming practices, climate, soil and hydrogeology. Modeling transfer throughout the soil concludes that among 4 t/year of active substances applied, only 43 kg percolate to the subsoil, the rest being trickled down or held in plants and in the various soil's compartments. For the subsoil, the results of the former modelisation concerning the 10 most infiltrated molecules have been introduced in a network with 250 m × 250 m cells, all over the perimeter. The model has allowed to draw a map of the residence times and transfer speeds, a map of the most sensitive areas and to determine the final concentrations in the water catchments. Metazachlor (M1 and M2 form) is the most transferred molecule and may exceed tolerable limits, which suggest to generalize the analysis of that molecules. The good reliability of the model and its relative facility of implementation make possible to consider its possible use for predictive purposes or awareness and to provide tools and actions for a more effective use of pesticides. © 2015 ASTEE. Source

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