Highland, AR, United States
Highland, AR, United States

Lyon College is an independent, residential, co-educational, undergraduate liberal arts college affiliated with the Presbyterian Church . Founded in 1872, it is the oldest independent college in Arkansas. Wikipedia.


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Cleophas T.J.,Lyon College
American Journal of Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Canonical analysis assesses the combined effects of a set of predictor variables on a set of outcome variables, but it is little used in clinical trials despite the omnipresence of multiple variables. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of canonical analysis as compared with traditional multivariate methods using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). As an example, a simulated data file with 12 gene expression levels and 4 drug efficacy scores was used. The correlation coefficient between the 12 predictor and 4 outcome variables was 0.87 (P 0.0001) meaning that 76% of the variability in the outcome variables was explained by the 12 covariates. Repeated testing after the removal of 5 unimportant predictor and 1 outcome variable produced virtually the same overall result. The MANCOVA identified identical unimportant variables, but it was unable to provide overall statistics. (1) Canonical analysis is remarkable, because it can handle many more variables than traditional multivariate methods such as MANCOVA can. (2) At the same time, it accounts for the relative importance of the separate variables, their interactions and differences in units. (3) Canonical analysis provides overall statistics of the effects of sets of variables, whereas traditional multivariate methods only provide the statistics of the separate variables. (4) Unlike other methods for combining the effects of multiple variables such as factor analysis/partial least squares, canonical analysis is scientifically entirely rigorous. (5) Limitations include that it is less flexible than factor analysis/partial least squares, because only 2 sets of variables are used and because multiple solutions instead of one is offered. We do hope that this article will stimulate clinical investigators to start using this remarkable method. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Cleophas T.J.,Lyon College
American Journal of Therapeutics | Year: 2016

Traditionally, nonlinear relationships like the smooth shapes of airplanes, boats, and motor cars were constructed from scale models using stretched thin wooden strips, otherwise called splines. In the past decades, mechanical spline methods have been replaced with their mathematical counterparts. The objective of the study was to study whether spline modeling can adequately assess the relationships between exposure and outcome variables in a clinical trial and also to study whether it can detect patterns in a trial that are relevant but go unobserved with simpler regression models. A clinical trial assessing the effect of quantity of care on quality of care was used as an example. Spline curves consistent of 4 or 5 cubic functions were applied. SPSS statistical software was used for analysis. The spline curves of our data outperformed the traditional curves because (1) unlike the traditional curves, they did not miss the top quality of care given in either subgroup, (2) unlike the traditional curves, they, rightly, did not produce sinusoidal patterns, and (3) unlike the traditional curves, they provided a virtually 100% match of the original values. We conclude that (1) spline modeling can adequately assess the relationships between exposure and outcome variables in a clinical trial; (2) spline modeling can detect patterns in a trial that are relevant but may go unobserved with simpler regression models; (3) in clinical research, spline modeling has great potential given the presence of many nonlinear effects in this field of research and given its sophisticated mathematical refinement to fit any nonlinear effect in the mostly accurate way; and (4) spline modeling should enable to improve making predictions from clinical research for the benefit of health decisions and health care. We hope that this brief introduction to spline modeling will stimulate clinical investigators to start using this wonderful method. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Etges W.J.,University of Arkansas | De Oliveira C.C.,University of Arkansas | De Oliveira C.C.,Lyon College
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14-18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Coleman M.T.,FutureFuel Chemical Company | Leblanc G.,Lyon College
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2010

The effectiveness of diethoxymethane (DEM) as a solvent for O-alkylation of a variety of phenols under phase transfer conditions has been examined and evaluated. The reaction between 4-methoxy phenol and benzyl chloride was selected to compare reaction rates in various solvents and the efficiency of various PTCs. This reaction was further studied to develop a commercially amenable process complete with recycle streams and efficient product isolation. DEM is a good solvent for these types of phase transfer-catalyzed reactions and can be considered as an alternative solvent for dichloromethane and toluene. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Van Bommel E.,Albert Schweitzer Hospital | Cleophas T.,Albert Schweitzer Hospital | Cleophas T.,Lyon College
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Background: Previous metaanalyses of potassium supplementation in patients with hypertension observed little or no benefit, but failed to account the amount of salt intake. Objective: To assess the effect on blood pressure of potassium treatment in patients with high salt intake. Methods: We meta-analyzed studies of patient populations with both high salt and potassium intake. We searched Medline, Google, major journals, Pubmed. Publication bias, lack of heterogeneity, and lack of robustness were assessed using standard procedures for such purposes. Results: After the exclusion of 32 studies 10 studies were left in the meta-analysis. A pooled reduction of systolic blood pressure of -9.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval -10.8 to -8.1) and of diastolic blood pressure -6.4 mmHg (-7.3 to -5.6) was observed. These results were very heterogeneous (I2-values of 94 and 95%). After exclusion of single authored studies the results fell but remained statistically significant, -7.1 mmHg (-8.5 to -5.7), and -4.9 mmHg (-5.8 to -4.0). Heterogeneity of systolic blood pressure was no longer observed (I2-value 24.3%). Some publication bias was observed. Conclusions: 1. Potassium treatment reduces the blood pressure substantially in hypertensive patients with salt-rich diets. 2. The difference in magnitude of blood pressure reduction between different studies is probably related to the amount of salt intake. 3. Patients with reduced salt intake benefit little from potassium treatment. 4. Major meta-analyses published to date have severely underestimated the potential benefit of potassium treatment in patients with hypertension. ©2012 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle.


Trademark
Lyon College | Date: 2016-08-22

Binders; Notebook covers; Notebooks; Pens. Cups; Glass beverageware; Glass mugs; Mugs; Tumblers for use as drinking glasses; Water bottles sold empty; Coffee mugs; Cups and mugs; Drinking glasses, namely, tumblers; Glass mugs.


Trademark
Lyon College | Date: 2016-08-22

Decals; Folders; Notebook covers; Notebooks.


Trademark
Lyon College | Date: 2016-07-20

Hats; Shirts; Shirts and short-sleeved shirts; Shorts; Sweat pants; Athletic shirts; Body shirts; Collared shirts; Hooded sweat shirts; Knit shirts; Long-sleeved shirts; Open-necked shirts; Short-sleeve shirts; Short-sleeved or long-sleeved t-shirts; Sport shirts; Sports shirts; Sports shirts with short sleeves; Sweat shirts; T-shirts; Tee shirts; Tee-shirts.


Trademark
Lyon College | Date: 2016-07-20

Hats; Pullovers; Shirts; Shirts and short-sleeved shirts; Sweat pants; Hooded pullovers; Hooded sweat shirts; Knit shirts; Long-sleeved shirts; Short-sleeve shirts; Short-sleeved shirts; Sports shirts; Sweat shirts; T-shirts; Tee shirts; Tee-shirts.


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Trademark
Lyon College | Date: 2016-08-23

Caps; Gloves; Hats; Pants; Shirts; Baseball caps and hats; Gym pants; Knit tops; Sports pants; Sports shirts; Sports caps and hats; Sweat shirts; T-shirts; Tank-tops; Yoga pants.

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