Lyndonville, VT, United States
Lyndonville, VT, United States

Lyndon State College is a public liberal arts college located at Lyndon Center in Lyndon, Caledonia County in the U.S. state of Vermont. In addition to a range of Bachelor's Degree programs, the college offers a Master's Degree program in Education. Lyndon State College is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Wikipedia.

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O'Hare T.,Chestnut Hill College | Sherrer M.,Lyndon State College
Community Mental Health Journal | Year: 2011

Data from interviews with 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with a severe mental illness were used to examine the association between clients' subjective distress from sudden loss of a close friend or loved one and PTSD symptoms. Over three-quarters of these clients reported sudden losses in their lives, and regression analysis showed that distress related to sudden losses accounted for significant and unique variance in PTSD symptoms when all other sources of traumatic distress were controlled. Practitioners should routinely assess interpersonal losses among clients with SMI and offer brief interventions specifically aimed at helping clients cope with such losses. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

O'Hare T.,Chestnut Hill College | Sherrer M.,Lyndon State College
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2011

Research has consistently shown that drinking to alleviate negative emotional states predicts alcohol use and relapse among clients with co-occurring disorders including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. However, studies examining the mediating role of drinking motives in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are few. The current survey of 116 community mental health clients (51.7% men; 47.4% women) diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (41, 35.3%) or major mood disorder (75, 64.7%) tested the hypothesis that convivial drinking and drinking to cope with negative emotions would mediate posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS-I) and alcohol consumption (QF). A series of path models revealed that convivial drinking fully mediated hyper-arousal symptoms and alcohol consumption, and negative coping fully mediated total posttraumatic stress symptoms, avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms and alcohol consumption. The results support an emotional distress reduction model of alcohol use in people with severe mental illness, and highlight the need to assess specific drinking motives and target them in cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches. The cross sectional design employed limits cause-effect inferences regarding mediation, and highlights the need for longitudinal designs to sort out causal pathways among symptoms, drinking motives and alcohol consumption in clients with SMI. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wakimoto R.M.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Stauffer P.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Lee W.-C.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Atkins N.T.,Lyndon State College | Wurman J.,Center for Severe Weather Research
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2012

A ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) analysis of the LaGrange, Wyoming, tornado on 5 June 2009 during the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2) is photogrammetrically combined with a series of pictures of the funnel cloud. This analysis reveals the relationship between the vertical velocity, radial and tangential velocities, perturbation pressure, vertical vorticity, and angular momentum with the visual features of the tornado. An intense axial downdraft was evident and was supported by a downward-directed perturbation pressure gradient. The radial inflow at low levels was weak and difficult to retrieve owing to a combination of centrifuging of hydrometeors/debris in the intense circulation and the inability of the radar beam to fully resolve the flow. The tornado was weakening during the analysis period, which was supported by angular momentum being advected out of the tornado. The availability of a dual-Doppler wind synthesis for this tornadic event provided a unique opportunity to assess the assumptions in the GBVTD methodology. The analysis suggests that the simplified GBVTD equations that have been applied in past studies of tornadoes are not appropriate in the present case. The most accurate retrieval of the radial velocities requires that a higher-order term that is typically neglected be retained. A quantitative assessment of the impact of centrifuging of hydrometeors on the synthesized wind field was attempted. The results suggest that the radial and vertical velocity profile near and within the tornado core can be significantly altered for tornadoes (EF2) that are accompanied by a small radius of maximum wind and relatively weaker low-level inflow. ©2012 American Meteorological Society.

Wakimoto R.M.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Atkins N.T.,Lyndon State College | Wurman J.,Center for Severe Weather Research
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2011

This study presents a single-Doppler radar analysis combined with cloud photography of the LaGrange, Wyoming, tornado on 5 June 2009 in an attempt to relate the radar-observed hook echo, weak-echo hole (WEH), and rotational couplet to the visual characteristics of the tornado. The tornado was rated EF2. The circulation at low levels went through two intensification periods based on azimuthal shear measurements. The first intensification was followed by the appearance of a brief funnel cloud. The second intensification was coincident with the appearance of a second funnel cloud that remained in contact with the ground until the tornado dissipated. A deep WEH rapidly formed within the hook echo after damaging wind was identified at the ground and before the appearance of a funnel cloud. The echo pattern through the hook echo on 5 June undergoes a dramatic evolution. Initially, the minimum radar reflectivities are near the surface (15 dBZ) and theWEH does not suggest a tapered structure near the ground. Subsequently, higher reflectivities appear at low levels when the funnel cloud makes contact with the ground. During one analysis time, the increase of the echo within the WEH at low levels results in a couplet of high/low radar reflectivity in the vertical. This increase in echo at low levels is believed to be associated with lofted debris although none was visibly apparent until the last analysis time. The WEH was nominally wider than the visible funnel cloud. The dataset provides the first detailed analysis of the double-ring structure within a hook echo that has been reported in several studies. The inner high-reflectivity region is believed to be a result of lofted debris. At higher-elevation angles, a small secondary WEH formed within the first WEH when debris was lofted and centrifuged. A feature noted in past studies showing high-resolution vertical cross sections of single-Doppler velocity normal to the radar beam is an intense rotational couplet of negative and positive values in the lowest few hundred meters. This couplet was also evident in the analysis of the LaGrange tornado. The couplet was asymmetric with stronger negative velocities owing to the motion of the tornado toward the radar. The damaging wind observed by radar extended well beyond the condensation funnel in the lowest few hundred meters. However, another couplet indicating strong rotation was also noted aloft in a number of volume scans. The decrease in rotational velocities between the low-and upper-level couplets may be related to air being forced radially outward from the tornado center at a location above the intense inflow. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

O'Hare T.,Boston College | Shen C.,Boston College | Sherrer M.,Lyndon State College
Journal of Traumatic Stress | Year: 2010

Face-to-face interviews with 276 community mental health clients (56.2% women; 42.8% men) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (44.6%) and major mood disorders (55.4%) were used to examine mediating relationships among physical and sexual abuse, high-risk behaviors, drink-to-cope motives, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Structural equation modeling revealed that both high-risk behaviors and drinking-to-cope significantly mediated the relationship between lifetime abuse and PTSD symptom severity with an excellent fit of model to data. Alternative models using PTSD symptom level as mediator were also tested, but did not meet optimal goodness-of-fit standards. Implications of findings call for vigilant screening for trauma, substance abuse, and high risk behaviors in clients with severe mental illnesses to inform treatment, and the need for longitudinal studies to test causal pathways. © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

Hughes D.S.,Lyndon State College
Proceedings of the Annual Southeast Conference | Year: 2012

Deciding on the best approach to introduce non-CS students to programming logic in a one-credit course can be a formidable task. Due to time constraints, it is essential that the curriculum content, as well as the programming tools of choice, be planned and chosen with great care. This paper will present three diverse approaches to creating an introduction to programming logic course and will suggest recommendations for best practices. © 2012 ACM.

A compelling body of literature suggests that negative appraisal may be associated with adverse reactions to traumatic stress. However, very few studies have examined how appraisal influences posttraumatic adaptation in people with serious mental illness (SMI) despite evidence of disproportionately high prevalence rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive appraisal and psychological adaptation to traumatic stress with a specific focus on individuals diagnosed with SMI. It will be argued that appraisal is a key correlate that may partially account for higher rates of PTSD in people diagnosed with major mood and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, meriting special consideration for future research. © The Author(s) 2011.

Kuo C.-C.,University of Alberta | Gan T.Y.,University of Alberta | Hanrahan J.L.,Lyndon State College
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3. km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate change projections of GCMs (general circulation models) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: LARS SPECIAL PROGRAMS | Award Amount: 13.71K | Year: 2013

This research will conduct a comprehensive analysis of the devastating Moore, Oklahoma tornado that occurred on 20 May, 2013. The focus of this study will be the integration of a comprehensive damage survey with high-resolution radar data from the nearby Twin Lakes, OK WSR-88D operational Doppler radar, as well as visual data of the tornado and attendant debris.

Intellectual Merit:
There are very few analyses of large, devastating tornadoes published in the referred literature. This study would be unique since, for the first time, the relationship between radar-detected features associated with the tornado and attendant debris, visual characteristics of the tornado and debris, and damage intensity and location will be examined. Such an integrated analysis has yet to be published in the refereed literature for a large, violent tornado.

Broader Impacts:
One of the more important broader impacts is to produce a detailed damage map of the deadly Moore tornado. The Moore tornado will be considered one of the most significant weather events to impact the Southern Plains. The integrated analysis will enhance our understanding of radar features commonly associated with tornadoes and attendant debris. This project will also employ an undergraduate student who will gain invaluable experience with the research process, data analysis and interpretation.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: PHYSICAL & DYNAMIC METEOROLOGY | Award Amount: 234.31K | Year: 2013

This research focuses on the formation and structure of wall clouds associated with supercell thunderstorms that were observed during the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment II (VORTEX2). The study will be accomplished through analysis of photogrammetrically analyzed photos and high-definition video of the hook region of supercells that were also concurrently being scanned by mobile Doppler radars. The objectives below will be met by integrating the visual data with high-resolution single and dual-Doppler analyses of the supercell hook region. The Ground Based Velocity Track Display (GBVTD) technique will be used to obtain axisymmetric wind fields for storms with good visual data and coverage with only one radar. Sounding, mobile mesonet, and surface station data will also be incorporated to document the thermodynamic characteristics of the environment and supercell hook region.

The first objective is to understand the processes responsible for wall cloud formation.
Current understanding of wall cloud formation is based on idealized numerical simulations published more than 25 years ago and visual observations. Three hypotheses will be tested. The first is that lower èe air behind the supercell gust front is ingested into the updraft and saturates at a lower altitude than the primary cloud base. Second, the wall cloud is formed by the adiabatic cooling associated with the pressure deficit created by circulation that may be present in the wall cloud. Third, wall cloud formation is due to rising low-level scud that attaches to the primary cloud base.

The second objective is to document the three-dimensional structure of the precipitation (reflectivity), vorticity, vertical motion, perturbation pressure, angular momentum, and horizontal wind fields within tornadic and non tornadic wall clouds. This analysis will, for the first time, document the differences and/or similarities between tornadic and nontornadic wall clouds. It will also help to define the relationship between the scale and intensity of the wall cloud relative to the updraft, low-level mesocyclone, and precipitation distribution within the hook region for lower precipitation, classic, and high precipitation supercells sampled during VORTEX2. Finally, it will be possible to compare the visual characteristics of the wall cloud with the kinematic structure derived from the Doppler radar data.

Intellectual Merit:
The wall cloud associated with supercell thunderstorms has been visually documented in many observational studies. It is generally accepted to be associated with the low-level updraft and is often the location of tornadogenesis. Amazingly, no observational study to date has systematically examined wall cloud formation, structure, and evolution relative to the low-level updraft, mesocyclone, and precipitation distribution within the hook region. Hence, realizing the above stated objectives would enhance our fundamental understanding of the low-level visual structure and evolution of supercell thunderstorms.

Broader Impacts:
It is anticipated that results from this research will be incorporated into the National Weather Service Skywarn storm spotter training. Skywarn spotters are vital to the accurate dissemination of visual weather information during severe weather situations. The project will expose a number of undergraduate students to the research process and will enhance the research infrastructure (also used in teaching) at Lyndon State College. Research results will be incorporated into many of the undergraduate classes.

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