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Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2016

Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. © 2016 Ivan M. Petyaev.

Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd | Zigangirova N.A.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology | Kapotina L.N.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology | Fedina E.D.,Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology | Kyle N.H.,Lycotec Ltd
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: There is experimental and clinical evidence showing that some viral and bacterial pathogens are linked to the accumulation of excessive body fat and obesity. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of C. trachomatis to propagate in the pre-adipocyte cell line and induce its differentiation into fat cells. Material and Methods: 3T3 LI pre-adipocytes or McCoy cells were plated and infected with C. trachomatis. The cell monolayers were further studied.by immunofluorescent and quantitative RT-PCR methods. Results: C. trachomatis can efficiently propagate in 3T3 L1 cells, a mouse pre-adipocyte cell line. The morphological characteristics of chlamydial growth revealed in 3T3 L1 cells with the monoclonal chlamydial MOMP-specific antibody resembled those seen in McCoy cells, a classic cell line used for chlamydial research. The number of chlamydial 16S rRNA copies detectable in the lysates of McCoy and 3T3 cells infected with C. trachomatis was almost identical, suggesting similar efficiency of pathogen propagation in both cell lines. Moreover, there was a significant increase in aP2 mRNA transcript levels as well as moderate induction of SCD-1 mRNA in the total RNA extracted from die infected 3T3 LI cells 48 h following the pathogen inoculation. The increased expression of the adipogenic markers was also accompanied by lipid droplet accumulation in the C. trachomatis infected 3T3 Ll cells, suggesting their transformation into differentiated adipocytes. Conclusions: The direct effect of the pathogen on fat cell progenitors observed in this work may explain abnormal fat deposition at the sites of chronic inflammation caused by C. trachomatis. © Copyright by Wroclaw Medical University.

Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd | Bashmakov Y.K.,Lycotec Ltd
Experimental and Clinical Cardiology | Year: 2014

Possible link between infectious agents and cardiovascular health was originally proclaimed by R Virchow and I Metchnikoff. There is a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence suggesting that some microbial communities of the human body, in particular the gut microbiota, are involved in atherosclerosis development. It has been recently shown, that products of microbial degradation of phosphatydilcholine - choline, trimetylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine can predict risk for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, L-carnitine, a trimethylamine plentiful in red meat, also increases TMAO levels through a similar microbiotadependent mechanism and promotes atherosclerosis by inhibiting reverse cholesterol transport and cholesterol disposal with bile. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is reportedly associated with activation of multiple bacterial genes involved in the peptidoglycan metabolism in gut. Possible therapeutic strategies and emerging questions related to the role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular health are discussed in this review.

Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd | Bashmakov Y.K.,Lycotec Ltd
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Manufacturing of dark chocolate and other cocoa-based products is a complex multistage process beginning with spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation driven in the postharvest period by different microorganisms derived from the environment. Cocobiota defined as the association of microbial species involved in cocoa bean fermentation may have considerable impact on the medicinal properties of cocoa products via various primary and secondary metabolites, whose presence in dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products has to be taken into consideration when analyzing medicinal effects of cocoa. Metabolites of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, two major cocobiota members, are recently shown to have considerable antifungal and cholesterol-lowering activities and promote the formation of short chain fatty acids and mannitol, an important prebiotic capable of modifying gut microbiota. Penicillium citrinum, a major type of fungi identifiable in fermented cocoa beans, produces a thermostable alkaloid, Penicitrinine A, as well as lovastatin, compounds with antineoplastic and cholesterol-lowering abilities, respectively. Moreover, recent results suggest that bacterial and fungal metabolites produced by cocobiota have a significant anti-infective potential. Therefore, various metabolites produced by cocobiota can mimic some medicinal effects of dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products previously attributed to cocoa flavonoids and methylxanthines and need to be thoroughly investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. © 2016 Ivan M. Petyaev and Yuriy K. Bashmakov.

Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd | Dovgalevsky P.Y.,Institute of Cardiology | Klochkov V.A.,Institute of Cardiology | Chalyk N.E.,Institute of Cardiology | Kyle N.,Lycotec Ltd
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2012

Parameters reflecting cardiovascular health and inflammation were studied in a pilot clinical trial conducted on 40 patients with prehypertension. The patients were treated with a new proprietary formulation of a whey protein (WP) isolate embedded into lycopene micelles (WPL) during a 1-month period. Control groups received lycopene or WP as a singular formulation or placebo pills for the same period of time. Combined WPL formulation of whey protein and lycopene has caused multiple favorable changes in the cardiovascular function (including a tendency to the reduced systemic blood pressure), the plasma lipid profile, and the inflammatory status of patients with prehypertension, whereas singular formulations of the compounds and placebo did not have such an effect. The reduction of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol fractions and almost two-fold decline in C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory oxidative damage (IOD) levels as well as an increase in nitric oxide (NO), tissue oxygenation (StO, and flow-mediated dilation values constitute the most significant benefit/outcome of the treatment with the combined formulation of whey protein and lycopene. The treatment did not affect the values of ankle-brachial index (ABI), body weight, and body mass index (BMI). © 2012 Ivan M. Petyaev et al.

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