Lycotec Ltd

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Lycotec Ltd

Cambridge, United Kingdom
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Bashmakov Y.K.,Lycotec Ltd. | Assaad-Khalil S.,Alexandria University | Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd. | Petyaev I.M.,Cambridge Theranostics Ltd.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a late-stage complication of type 2 diabetes which originates from interplay among impaired tissue regeneration, vasculopathy, neuropathy and inflammation all on the background of insulin resistance. Despite astonishing mortality rate pharmacological approach in management of diabetic ulceration is almost non-existent. Foot pressure relief, wound debridement and infection control remain widely accepted options in the treatment of DFS. We hypothesize that resveratrol treatment and subsequent activation of SIRT1 pathway might be highly beneficial for patients with DFS. This prediction is based on multiple lines of evidence implicating resveratrol and sirtuins in restoration of insulin sensitivity, microcirculation, tissue regeneration, function of peripheral nerves and production of cytokines. Stabilized " nutraceutical" formulations of resveratrol with high absorption rate are essential to examine its potential medical benefits since dietary polyphenols are known to be rapidly metabolized by gut microflora and oxidized during absorption. Clinical trials with nutraceutical formulations and placebo are required to understand if resveratrol indeed holds the promise for treatment of DFS. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Lycotec Ltd and DiagNodus Ltd
Type: | Journal: Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI) | Year: 2016

Global increase of human longevity results in the emergence of previously ignored ageing-related problems. Skin ageing is a well-known phenomenon, but active search for scientific approaches to its prevention and even skin rejuvenation is a relatively new area. Although the structure and composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the superficial layer of epidermis, is well studied, relatively little is known about the residual skin surface components (RSSC) that overlay the surface of the SC. The aim of this study was to examine morphological features of RSSC samples non-invasively collected from the surface of human facial skin for the presence of age-related changes.Residual skin surface component samples were collected by swabbing from the surface of facial skin of 60 adult male volunteers allocated in two age groups: 34 subjects aged in the range 18-32 years and 26 subjects aged in the range 58-72 years. The collected samples were analysed microscopically: the size of the lipid droplets was measured; desquamated corneocytes and lipid crystals were counted; and microbial presence was assessed semi-quantitatively.Age-related changes were revealed for all studied components of the RSSC. There was a significant (P = 0.0126) decrease in the size of lipid droplets among older men. Likewise, significantly (P = 0.0252) lower numbers of lipid crystals were present in this group. In contrast, microbial presence in the RSSC was significantly (P = 0.0019) increased in the older group. There was also a trend towards more abundant corneocyte desquamation among older men, but the difference has not reached statistical significance (P = 0.0636).Non-invasively collected RSSC samples present an informative material for studying age-related changes on the surface of the SC of human facial skin. The results of this study confirm earlier observations regarding age-associated decline of the efficiency of the epidermal barrier and can be used for testing new approaches to skin ageing prevention.


Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd. | Bashmakov Y.K.,Lycotec Ltd.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2012

The low rates of cardiovascular mortality which have existed in France for decades despite high saturated fat consumption constitute an epidemiological phenomenon called the "French paradox". This phenomenon was originally attributed to consumption of red wine and its major constituent resveratrol. However, recent studies have revealed the limitations of this link outside France. These observations indicate that consumption of red wine alone cannot explain the paradox and perhaps some other constituents of the typical French diet could be responsible for reduced cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesize that cheese consumption, especially of molded varieties, may contribute to the occurrence of the "French paradox". This assumption is well supported by newly discovered facts revealing the positive effect of cheese ingestion on lipoprotein turnover and plasma lipid profile, haemorheological parameters and inflammatory status. Recent advances in cheese proteomics have allowed the identification and isolation of novel peptides capable of inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme which controls systemic blood pressure. A complex time-dependent enzymatic transformation of the cheese core controlled by probiota, temperature and humidity during the ripening process has been shown to result in the formation of substances reducing major pro-inflammatory markers and cytokines (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha). Molded cheeses, including Roquefort, may be even more favorable to cardiovascular health due to the presence of secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium roqueforti and other fungi. Among them are andrastins A-D and roquefortine, whose ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and bacterial growth may be a key mechanism in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2016

Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed. © 2016 Ivan M. Petyaev.


Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd | Bashmakov Y.K.,Lycotec Ltd
Experimental and Clinical Cardiology | Year: 2014

Possible link between infectious agents and cardiovascular health was originally proclaimed by R Virchow and I Metchnikoff. There is a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence suggesting that some microbial communities of the human body, in particular the gut microbiota, are involved in atherosclerosis development. It has been recently shown, that products of microbial degradation of phosphatydilcholine - choline, trimetylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine can predict risk for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, L-carnitine, a trimethylamine plentiful in red meat, also increases TMAO levels through a similar microbiotadependent mechanism and promotes atherosclerosis by inhibiting reverse cholesterol transport and cholesterol disposal with bile. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is reportedly associated with activation of multiple bacterial genes involved in the peptidoglycan metabolism in gut. Possible therapeutic strategies and emerging questions related to the role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular health are discussed in this review.


Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2015

Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are a group of highly efficient pharmacological agents used for reducing blood cholesterol level and prevention/treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adverse reactions during statin treatment affect quite significant numbers of patients (reportedly from 5% to 20%), with more side effects occurring at higher doses. Reduced statin dosing can be achieved by improved bioavailability of statins, which is fairly low due to poor aqueous solubility, low permeability and high molecular weight of some members of the statin family. Moreover, since hepatic cholesterologenesis is a main target of statin action and extrahepatic inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase has no effect on plasma lipids, hepatic bioavailability, in our opinion, becomes a new important modality of statins maximizing their potential effect on the plasma lipid profile and diminishing their extrahepatic toxicity. Therefore efficient delivery systems of statins into hepatocytes need to be developed and introduced. Uses of nano-emulsifying statin delivery systems which may include vectors of intrahepatic transport, in particular lycopene, are discussed. As a proof of concept, some preliminary results revealing the effect of a lycopene-containing nanoformulation of simvastatin (designated as Lyco-Simvastatin) on LDL in mildly hypercholesterolemic patients are shown. Copyright © 2015 Termedia & Banach.


Petyaev I.M.,Lycotec Ltd. | Bashmakov Y.K.,Lycotec Ltd.
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Manufacturing of dark chocolate and other cocoa-based products is a complex multistage process beginning with spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation driven in the postharvest period by different microorganisms derived from the environment. Cocobiota defined as the association of microbial species involved in cocoa bean fermentation may have considerable impact on the medicinal properties of cocoa products via various primary and secondary metabolites, whose presence in dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products has to be taken into consideration when analyzing medicinal effects of cocoa. Metabolites of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, two major cocobiota members, are recently shown to have considerable antifungal and cholesterol-lowering activities and promote the formation of short chain fatty acids and mannitol, an important prebiotic capable of modifying gut microbiota. Penicillium citrinum, a major type of fungi identifiable in fermented cocoa beans, produces a thermostable alkaloid, Penicitrinine A, as well as lovastatin, compounds with antineoplastic and cholesterol-lowering abilities, respectively. Moreover, recent results suggest that bacterial and fungal metabolites produced by cocobiota have a significant anti-infective potential. Therefore, various metabolites produced by cocobiota can mimic some medicinal effects of dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products previously attributed to cocoa flavonoids and methylxanthines and need to be thoroughly investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. © 2016 Ivan M. Petyaev and Yuriy K. Bashmakov.


PubMed | Lycotec Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity | Year: 2016

Lycopene is a hydrocarbon phytochemical belonging to the tetraterpene carotenoid family and is found in red fruit and vegetables. Eleven conjugated double bonds predetermine the antioxidant properties of lycopene and its ability to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Lycopene has a low bioavailability rate and appears in the blood circulation incorporated into chylomicrons and other apo-B containing lipoproteins. The recent body of evidence suggests that plasma concentration of lycopene is not only a function of intestinal absorption rate but also lycopene breakdown via enzymatic and oxidative pathways in blood and tissues. Oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide may represent a major cause of lycopene depletion in ageing, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown recently that low carotenoid levels, and especially decreased serum lycopene levels, are strongly predictive of all-cause mortality and poor outcomes of cardiovascular disease. However, there is a poor statistical association between dietary and serum lycopene levels which occurs due to limited bioavailability of lycopene from dietary sources. Hence, it is very unlikely that nutritional intervention alone could be instrumental in the correction of lycopene and carotenoid deficiency. Therefore, new nutraceutical formulations of carotenoids with enhanced bioavailability are urgently needed.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: European | Award Amount: 78.44K | Year: 2013

Awaiting Public Project Summary


PubMed | Lycotec Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Journal of nutrition and metabolism | Year: 2016

Manufacturing of dark chocolate and other cocoa-based products is a complex multistage process beginning with spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation driven in the postharvest period by different microorganisms derived from the environment. Cocobiota defined as the association of microbial species involved in cocoa bean fermentation may have considerable impact on the medicinal properties of cocoa products via various primary and secondary metabolites, whose presence in dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products has to be taken into consideration when analyzing medicinal effects of cocoa. Metabolites of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, two major cocobiota members, are recently shown to have considerable antifungal and cholesterol-lowering activities and promote the formation of short chain fatty acids and mannitol, an important prebiotic capable of modifying gut microbiota. Penicillium citrinum, a major type of fungi identifiable in fermented cocoa beans, produces a thermostable alkaloid, Penicitrinine A, as well as lovastatin, compounds with antineoplastic and cholesterol-lowering abilities, respectively. Moreover, recent results suggest that bacterial and fungal metabolites produced by cocobiota have a significant anti-infective potential. Therefore, various metabolites produced by cocobiota can mimic some medicinal effects of dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products previously attributed to cocoa flavonoids and methylxanthines and need to be thoroughly investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems.

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