Lviv National Medical University
L'viv, Ukraine

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University , — formerly known as the Lvov State Medical Institute, earlier the Faculty of Medicine of the John Casimir University and, before that, Faculty of Medicine of the Francis I University — is one of the oldest and biggest medical universities in Ukraine.It is one of the leading medical universities of the IV level of accreditation. LNMU begins from the Medical Faculty of Lviv University, which was opened on November 16, 1784, according to the privilege of the Austrian emperor Josef II. In 2009 University celebrated its 225 anniversary. Wikipedia.

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Hryhoriy K.,Lviv National Medical University
Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) | Year: 2016

INTRODUCTION: type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most important medical and social problems in the world. Patients with diabetes are prone to coronary artery disease, in particular acute coronary syndrome, with atypical clinical signs and susceptibility to tachycardia. Elevated heart rate is an important factor of premature mortality in all patients with acute coronary syndrome. The aim of the investigation was to reveal the heart rate peculiarities in unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 for more effective treatment of these patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction were examined in the consecutive way during 2013- 2015 years. The patients were divided in two groups. The main group consisted of 25 patients with UA and NSTEMI with concomitant DM. The control group consisted of 15 patients with UA and NSTEMI but without DM. Basic clinical examinations, electrocardiography and 24 hours electrocardiography monitoring were performed. Carvedilol in the dose from 12.5 to 25 mg daily was also prescribed.RESULTS: we revealed statistically higher heart rate in the patients with unstable angina, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and concomitant DM on hospitalization, at the fifth day of treatment and before their discharge from the hospital.CONCLUSIONS: 1. Patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in associations with diabetes mellitus type 2 are characterized with increased heart rate partly resistant to β-blockers, which indicates worse prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. 2. Prescription of carvedilol in daily dose 12.5 - 25 mg. is inadequate for obtaining HR < 70 bmp. in some patients with acute coronary syndrome and diabetes mellitus. 3. According to heart rate resistance to β-blockers in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and concomitant diabetes mellitus patients need individual titration of higher doses of carvedilol.

Ieremeieva T.V.,Lviv National Medical University
Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) | Year: 2016

INTRODUCTION: nowadays, there are about 45 million blind individuals and, according to the prognosis, their quantity will reach over 76 million in 2020. In such a way, nowadays ophthalmological problems become more widespread, and the market of the ophthalmological services is not studied enough to understand all the tendencies and processes.AIM: was to study the patients' awareness on eye diseases and choice peculiarities of the information sources and medical institutions among various population age groups of Lutsk, Rivne and Ternopil cities.MATERIALS AND METHODS: the research was conducted as an anonymous questionnaire survey of respondents according to a specially designed integrated protocol by means of interviewing people at the streets of Lutsk (n=2000), Rivne (n=1500) and Ternopil (n=1500) cities.RESULTS: there was conducted a research on the population awareness concerning vision problems, analysis of social factors and peculiarities of the choice of information sources about eye diseases and factors influencing the choice of a medical institution and an ophthalmologist. It was determined that younger population prefers private medical institutions in almost half of the cases (95% confidence interval (CI) of the private institution choice probability: 0,48-0,52), while older population prefers mainly state ones (95% CI of the choice probability: 0,71-0,74).CONCLUSION: it was determined depending on the age, the range of people having vision problems varied from 22% in the "under 30 years" population group up to 76% in the "over 60 years" group, although at least 21,5% of the whole population realizing their problems do not address an ophthalmologist.

Nakonechnyy R.A.,Lviv National Medical University
Novosti Khirurgii | Year: 2017

Objectives. To determine cystoscopic prognostic markers of treatment effectiveness in children with different clinical forms of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) for an adequate patients' treatment and defect correction. Methods. The patients (n=270) with various forms of VUR of II-IV grades at the age from 6 months up to 14 years the structure of the ureter ostium was analyzed during the endovesical treatment. Half a year after the endovesical treatment a cystoscopic picture was evaluated in 64 patients with VUR of I-IV grades in whom VUR of stage remained in the same condition or decreased. The position of the "volcano shape" protrusion, migration and extrusion of the implant and if the implant bulged - the hydrodilatation grade of the ureteral orifice sprawled on it were studied. Results. Six months after a single implantation the effectiveness of the minimally invasive treatment of VUR (II grades) was 87,84%, of III - 83,45% and of IV - 39,22%. The effectiveness of endovesical VUR re-treatment of I-IV grades reached 57,81%, which in general made gain on recovery by 13,7%. Generally, minimally invasive intervention efficiency has risen up to 90%. The lack of "volcano shape" protrusion after the first endovesical procedure turned out to be an evident negative prognostic marker regarding the effectiveness of repeated implantation - OR=0,24 [0,07-0,9], RR=0,36 [0,12-1,05], and the migration of the implant in the lateral direction was less pronounced negative marker - OR=0,76 [0,31-1,85], RR=0,84 [0,46-1,51]. Reducing the "volcano shape" protrusion and its displacement to the medial direction are positive prognostic markers regarding the effective re-implantation. The association was more significant with implant volume loss: OR=2,08 [0,82-5,28], RR=1,54 [0,92-2,57] if compared with OR=1,71 [0,69-4,25] and RR=1,39 [0,82-2,34] in case of migration to the midline of the bladder. Conclusion. While planning the endovesical re-treatment of VUR the personalized approach to a patient is necessary considering the prognostic cystoscopic markers.

Zhuraev R.,Lviv National Medical University
Cardiology Journal | Year: 2016

Background: The studies on heart rate variability (HRV), a key predictor of all-cause mortality, in Marfan syndrome (MS), up to now have not been reported, especially in patients with FBN1 mutations. Methods: Among 18 MS patients with the phenotype of MS meeting inclusion criteria 15 have had a FBN1 gene mutation. Short electrocardiography records were taken in the supine position and during orthostatic tests. The control group consisted of 30 apparently healthy nonathletes matched by age and gender. Results: Heart rates in MS patients with the FBN1 mutation were increased in both the supine position and orthostatic test (p < 0.001). Most of the time-domain (standard deviation, pNN50) and frequency-domain (total power, very low, low, and high frequency) parameters of HRV were significantly reduced in the MS patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A marked decrease in HRV, documented in the study, may be an important clinical feature in MS patients with confirmed FBN1 gene mutations. © 2016 Via Medica.

Lutsyk A.,Lviv National Medical University | Sogomonian E.,Lviv National Medical University
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica | Year: 2012

Twenty lectins with different carbohydrate affinities, including five new lectins purified from fungi, were used for histochemical examination of carbohydrate determinants in rat ovaries and endometrium under experimental hyper- and hypothyroidism. In the ovaries of control rats, lectin binding was detected predominantly in the zona pellucida and corona radiata of growing follicles, luteocytes, and leucocytes. Within the endometrium, lectins reacted strongly with the luminal surface, epitheliocytes and secretions of the uterine glands, pre-decidual cells, leucocytes, and collagen fibers. As revealed on general morphology and estrous cycle studies, hyperthyroidism induced ovarian luteinization, and increased the content of pre-decidual cells and of collagen fibers in the endometrium, with no reliable effect on the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism was accompanied by retardation of the estrous cycle, enhanced folliculogenesis and leucocyte infiltration of ovarian and endometrial stroma. Both hyper- and hypothyroidism significantly affected the tissue carbohydrates of the ovaries and endometrium: specific and differential redistribution of DMan, LFuc, NeuNAc, DGlcNAc, DGalNAc, and DGal determinants was detected under both pathological conditions. Hyperthyroidism induced more severe alterations of glycoconjugates than hypothyroidism; the endometrium was more susceptible to thyroxin-modulated impairments than the ovaries. These results give new insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of the effects of thyroid disorders on the female reproductive organs and demonstrate the suitability of lectin histochemistry methods for monitoring the efficacy of hormonal imbalance correction therapy, as well as the applicability of new lectin preparations for the selective labeling of ovarian and endometrial constituents. © Polish Society for Histochemistry and Cytochemistry Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2012.

Nasadyuk C.,Lviv National Medical University | Sklyarov A.,Lviv National Medical University
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2013

Background and objective: Some short peptides have recently been reported to exhibit gastroprotective properties but the role of NO-synthase system in these mechanisms still leaves much to be elucidated. That is why the purpose of our study was to explore the gastroprotective effect of the hexapeptide Arg-α-Asp-Lys-Val-Tyr-Arg (thymohexin) under conditions of the modeling of iNOS activity. Materials and methods: The studies were performed on 80 outbred male rats. Gastric lesions were induced with epinephrine (2. mg/kg) or indomethacin (30. mg/kg). Fifteen minutes before the exposure to ulcerogens rats were pretreated with thymohexin alone and combined with l-arginine or aminoguanidine. Twenty-four hours later gastric mucosa damage, l-arginine/NOS/NO system, processes of lipoperoxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were assessed. Results: Thymohexin markedly attenuated both epinephrine- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats, decreasing the area and score of mucosal lesions (p<0.05), iNOS activity (p<0.05) and malonic dialdehyde content (p<0.05) in gastric mucosa. The cytoprotective effect of thymohexin was significantly enhanced by l-arginine and aminoguanidine. The combination of thymohexin and l-arginine was superior to that with aminoguanidine. Conclusions: Thymohexin protects gastric mucosa against epinephrine- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Thymohexin-induced gastroprotection is probably mediated by inhibition of iNOS and decrease of the oxidative damage in gastric mucosa. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Vynograd N.,Lviv National Medical University
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2014

The key aspects of the natural foci of especially dangerous diseases as a type of biological threats are presented. Approaches to epidemiological surveillance and control to the spread of the agents of especially dangerous diseases on endemic areas are described for zoonosis that has a medical value. The knowledge of specific design of tools for the implementation of epidemiological surveillance, monitoring and evaluation of natural foci diseases in developing countries is low; accordingly, little is known on the ecology and transmission dynamics for the agents of especially dangerous diseases. Important is to know the effectiveness of serological monitoring of the indigenous population to determine the activity of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, Q-fever, Lyme disease and West Nile disease. The main species of reservoirs and vectors for these agents have been determined in different regions of Ukraine. New tick-borne agents that were unknown for certain regions have been detected. These data indicate the spreading of different pathogens in combination with natural foci. © 2014, L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland.

Pohranychna Kh.,Lviv National Medical University
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2016

Aim: To study a rare clinical case of isolated primary osteoma localized in the frontal bone, provide its detailed clinical and pathomorphological analysis, and evaluate statistical indicators of occurrence frequency and localization of facial skeleton osteomas during 2006-2015. Materials and Methods: The retrospective case records analysis of patients undergoing treatment in the maxillofacial department of Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital and suffering from facial skeleton osteomas was conducted. The clinical examination was carried out in accordance with the inspection protocol required for the examination of patients diagnosed with tumors and tumor-like neoplasms in a particular clinical case. Frontal and lateral views were used in the course of X-ray imaging. Histological studies included macroscopy and microscopy. Results: According to the retrospective case record analysis made over the last 10 years 346 cases of facial bone osteoma were revealed and proved histologically comprising 3.7% of all benign osteogeneous maxillofacial tumors. For the first time in 10 years osteoma localized in the frontal bone had been revealed and thoroughly studied. Macroscopically-a semi-spherical and immovable neoformation 7 cm in diameter of hard consistency, splaying out at 4 cm and being adherent with the frontal bone. Roentgenologically-homogeneous intense shadowing of a round form with relatively distinct outlines complying with clinical sizes. According to the histological data, the tumor consists mostly of the solid osseous tissue and the spongy osseous tissue with the evident thickened trabeculas of the bone located in different directions. Conclusion: The analysis of historical data demonstrated extremely rare localization of primary osteoma of the frontal bone, and indicated the uniqueness of the case and significant clinical importance of its detailed study. Copyright © Experimental Oncology, 2016.

Besedina A.,Lviv National Medical University
Journal of Medical Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for the development of CHD. Abnormalities in NO generation or activity have been proposed as a major mechanism of CHD. The purpose of this article is to determine the activity of eNOS and iNOS in patients with isolated CHD and CHD associated with HT of different age groups. Methods: Fifty patients with isolated CHD and 42 patients with CHD associated with HT were enrolled in this study. NOS activity was determined by nitrite anion formed in the reaction. Results: A statistically significant increase in iNOS activity is observed in elderly donors. In patients with isolated coronary heart disease cNOS activity is statistically significantly reduced with respect to the control group. The reduction of enzymatic activity of cNOS is more expressed in elderly patients than in middle-aged patients with coronary heart disease. Alterations in eNOS activity are more expressed in patients with coronary heart disease associated with hypertension than in patients with isolated coronary heart disease. Against the background of cNOS inhibition in the patients, a sharp increase in iNOS activity is observed. Conclusions: It has been shown that disturbance of endo - thelial function in patients with coronary heart disease associated with hypertension is characterized by reduced endothelial NO synthesis by cNOS and increased systemic NO synthesis due to increased iNOS activity. It has been found that the lack of endothelial NO and hyperproduction of "harmful" NO by iNOS are more expressed in elderly patients. © by Anna Besedina 2016.

Zayachkivska O.,Lviv National Medical University
Frontiers of Gastrointestinal Research | Year: 2012

Esophageal inflammation is the highly complex protective response to cellular/tissue injury, one of the fundamental features in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) that represents a wide group of acid-related disorders, where a majority of patients appear to have nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) with minimal change esophagitis and no endoscopic abnormalities. Despite recent advances and better understanding of the physiopathogenesis of GERD and NERD, the molecular events of inflammation leading to erosive esophagitis (EE) and nonerosive esophagitis (NEE) development, their delay in healing and recurrence remains unclear. Membrane and integral glycoconjugate transformation of different cells in the esophageal barrier (EB) is associated with the reprogramming of pathways that control inflammation, survival and proliferation. The focus of this review is to summarize our data on the bidirectional relationship between the glycoconjugates - variable mediators for structural, modality roles and inflammatory settings in esophageal disorders. We designed and carried out experimental studies that induced esophageal damage, mimicking the esophageal injury of human GERD and NERD. We examined it using functional, morphologic and molecular biologic tests, and which and if pathways of inflammation precede changes in EB and development of mucosal lesions during the early stages of NEE or EE. We showed that glycoconjugates operate as tags for esophageal mucosal inflammation, ulceration and control communication between cell populations in repair. Detailed characterization of sialoglycans and their dynamics offers insights into functional interplay in the esophageal cellular community, whereas they switch the pro-inflammatory events involved in early nonepithelial cell activation and mucosal restitution. Esophageal mucosal repair and ulcer healing through different responses cannot be separated from changes in glycoconjugates upon modulation activity of limited and localized inflammation, cytotoxic nitrogen effects, and oxidative injury of epithelial and endothelial cells, cell proliferation, and migration. This new approach to glycobiology will provide an innovative view on inflammation in the physiopathogenesis of NERD and GERD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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